Edmund Storm theory proposal : Cracks, Hydroton, and common sense.

  • At ICCF18, Edmund storm presented his theory in this paper:
    http://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEexplaining.pdf


    This theory is based on few conservative assumptions, based on known physics and observations :

    • CF cannot occur in a “normal” material but requires formation of a unique condition called
      a nuclear-active-environment (NAE).
      He propose it is vacancies, cracks...
    • The heat energy and nuclear products are produced by the same basic process operating in
      the same NAE.
      Because having many independent never observed phenomenons is too improbable...
    • Cold fusion is not hot fusion.
      Observation eliminate the possibility of usual hot fusion with massive tritium and neutron prduction. Cold Fusion is fusing hydrogen without neutrons, and even without energetic gamma.
    • The explanation must apply to each method for producing cold fusion and the resulting
      behavior.
      Because it is too improbable to have more than one mechanism newly discovered...
    • No Law of Nature is violated.
      Thermodynamic laws are respected, conservation of momentum, probabilities...

    Edmund Storms propose that the NAE is cracks, where hydrogen forms "Hydroton" a kind of metalic hydrogen chain, where electrons are mostly between the adjacents nucleus, screening electrostatic charge. Hydroton can also oscillate and dissipate energy by discrete quanta. Oscillation maye bring nucleus nearer and allow fusion (including the electron between). energy is dissipated then by the hydroton as various photons. The chain may oscillate in a coherent way allowing periodically fusion...


    He also discuss of an engineering model of a LENR reactor, with temperature to power function, and possible working zone...


    He propose how to test the model:

    Quote

    The model can be tested as follows:

    • The tritium production rate can be related to the D/H atom ratio in the material. When pure H is used, the rate will start at zero and increase with time as deuterium is made and fuses with the surrounding H. The concentration of deuterium and 4He will also increase as energy is made.
    • Weak photon radiation can be detected when CF energy is made, which has a large range of energy, with most photons having too little energy to leave the apparatus. The radiation is expected to have coherent characteristics.
    • The CF effect can be initiated as a result of nano-sized crack formation, generally in the surface region as a result of stress relief. This stress can be created many different ways in many different materials.
    • The rate of energy production can be described by Equation 1


    Even if I am careful about theory since many theoretical deception, I feel that this one capture many key ideas.
    He take into account the chemical context.


    The behavior of hydroton as he describe it, resonate with Widom-Larsen (avoiding key errors).
    However I don't know critics on hydroton...


    It also explain the RF claims, and why not some magnetic fields...


    Why not, but at least a very interesting approach and many warnings about other theories.

  • I got to studying these 8 months ago and posted them a 'coupla of times 'cause they seemed relevant.


    Adatoms of any element can be quirky, exhibiting unusual characteristics. An adatom of hydrogen is different than a hydroton... Is it part of it? Consider these unrelated works which may provide insight or parallel reasoning.


    "Analytic Local and Total Density of States for Hydrogen Adatoms on Graphene"
    Pike, Nicholas; Stroud, David American Physical Society, APS March Meeting 2013, March 18-22, 2013, abstract #F8.009 http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MAR.F8009P


    Spin transport through graphene is strongly influenced by the presence of adatoms with unpaired spins, such as hydrogen adatoms. In this work, we calculate the local density of states (LDOS) for a simple model of hydrogen on graphene using a tight binding model.


    "New Solid Form of Hydrogen Discovered at Extreme Pressures"
    By James A. Foley Jun 04, 2013 At: Nature World News http://www.natureworldnews.com…red-extreme-pressures.htm


    At extreme pressures, hydrogen - a gas under normal conditions - takes on a new solid form that is remarkably different from other structures known to science while also disproving a long-held theory, according to the latest research from the Carnegie Institution for Science.


    Hydrogen is the lightest and most abundant element on Earth. Up until now, only three solid states of hydrogen were known, though since the 1930s it has been theorized that the element would become a metal at extremely high pressures. Metallic hydrogen has been described as the "holy grail of high-pressure physics," often theorized about, but impossible to confirm because generating the center-of-the-Earth-like pressures necessary to get hydrogen into a metallic state were not technically feasible in laboratories.

  • ‘Coulombic Ordering’ in Tight Spaces Disrupts Normal Particle Behavior in Ions. The main effect here is, the quantum effects (Zero Point Energy) shake particles confined to a narrow channels (and/or layers) in such a way, the standard ion ordering withing crystal lattices gets violated. It's sorta analogy of increase of melting point of ice inside thin layers of humidity (yes, the known effect of ice slipperiness and regelation also belong into this group of phenomena).

    From dense aether model perspective this effect is easy to explain: the vacuum fluctuations have a tendency to shake all elementary particles in neverending motion, the intensity of which is rather insignificant when it occurrs in all three dimensions at the same moment. But its momentum is rather constant, so that once we eliminate the motion of particles in two or three dimensions, then the effects of vacuum energy in residual dimensions get significantly enhanced and the uncertainty of particle speed and motion in the residual dimensions/directions increases.


    Here I created an animation which sorta illustrates this effect in illustrative way. The motion of particles gets bewildered, once they get constrained in their motion.


    34YMOIi.gif 



    There were observations of enhancing of cold fusion inside the materials, which have electron motion constrained into a narrow channels (hole stripes within superconductors - Mario Rabinowitz, Edmund Storms). Also there are indicia. that the cold fusion runs way easier inside a narrow channels (dislocation of whisker crystals) as Francesco Piantelli utilizes in his technology.


    Other than that, the breaking of ion ordering has no direct application for cold fusion I guess, because the cold fusion doesn't care about some ordering. There are some LENR theories, like the Storms’ "hydrotons", which consider the alternating sequences of protons (hydrogen ions) and electrons. In most other cases, the remaining shells would keep the nuclei at distance. However, this is a very special case, since there will be no Coulomb repulsion of the electron shells (a single electron cannot not repel itself) and the breaking of this order would inhibit cold fusion, rather than support it. What is IMO important there is, the increased energy of ion collisions constrained to a narrow channels or cracks could enable the overcoming of Coulomb barriers easier, at least in theory.