Frank Gordon's "Lattice Energy Converter (LEC)"...replicators workshop

  • I have continued collaborating with Frank and Harper on this - the configuration has evolved quite a bit, which Frank will talk about at ICCF-25. But I'm sure that he won't mind me telling you all that it is no longer a gas-spaced cell, but uses an ionic solid spacer, and that we are currently working on pre-treatments - surface conditioning of cathodes - so they have hydrogen-loaded nanotubes growing on them. Cheap, easy and all 'green chemistry.'

    For @THH's comfort I should mention I have seen other systems where you think you have an anomalous effect, but when you keep digging and improving your systems the effect gets smaller and smaller. The difference here is that the effect gets bigger and bigger.

  • As shown in Fig. 1, these changes resulted a peak power of 478 µW

    Half a milliwatt! An improvement of 2 to 3 orders of magnitude. That's great news.


    Note that a wristwatch battery produces about 1 µW, and a pacemaker around 50 µW. So if this gadget can be miniaturized, it would already have a market. Pacemaker batteries cost a fortune.


    Ed thinks these devices cannot be scaled up to high power levels. I guess he means 1 W or above. Maybe 10 W? I do not know, and I cannot judge whether he is right, but even microwatt power levels are useful in some applications. That is why there is a market for tritium-driven betavoltic batteries.


    What is Betavoltaic Power? | AltEnergyMag
    The term betavoltaic is interchangeable with atomic battery, nuclear battery, tritium battery and radioisotope generator. They are used to designate a device,…
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    Also, even if Ed is right, this boost in power is great news for two other reasons:


    1. It makes the power easier to measure with confidence;


    2. It may allow a simple test to see if the gadget goes beyond the limits of chemistry. Suppose the gadget can be made smaller, to reduce the mass and total amount of chemical energy in it that might power a battery. At the previously reported highest level of power, I estimated that it would take many years to generate enough electricity to be sure you were beyond the limits. It might take decades, given the performance of a wristwatch battery. When the power is 3 orders of magnitude higher, it would take 3 orders of magnitude less time to confirm it has exceeded the limits of chemistry.


    I realize there are already reasons to think it is not a chemical battery. But watching it run for year longer than any chemical battery would be additional proof that it is not chemical.

  • The oldest surviving LEC is now 8. It produces only an infinitesimal current, but is still conductive, showing there are ions presnt.


    I have continued collaborating with Frank and Harper on this - the configuration has evolved quite a bit, which Frank will talk about at ICCF-25. But I'm sure that he won't mind me telling you all that it is no longer a gas-spaced cell, but uses an ionic solid spacer, and that we are currently working on pre-treatments - surface conditioning of cathodes - so they have hydrogen-loaded nanotubes growing on them. Cheap, easy and all 'green chemistry.'

    For @THH's comfort I should mention I have seen other systems where you think you have an anomalous effect, but when you keep digging and improving your systems the effect gets smaller and smaller. The difference here is that the effect gets bigger and bigger.

    Right - so based on the output from that you can work out the energy - or more interestingly the energy/cm^2 of electrode. I'd expect that to be squarely in the "could be chemical" range based on figures of 1mW at max output.



    do not know what chemical energy a LEC might hold. Very little, in any case. The most chemical energy that a Pd electrochemical cold fusion cell can hold is easy to estimate. The only significant chemical energy storage is palladium deuteride (or hydride, which has the same amount of chemical energy). For a closed cell, you measure the moles of palladium, assume that it is 100% loaded with hydrogen (the same number of moles) and then take half of that number, since there are two hydrogen atoms per mole of water. Multiply that by the heat of formation, 286 kJ/mol, and that is how much energy you can store. In real life you can never achieve 100% loading, so that is an overestimate. 1 mole of Pd is 106 g (the atomic weight in grams). So, 1 g = 0.01 mole and the most water you can get from it is 0.005 moles, or 0.1 g, which produces 1.4 kJ.

    Right - but the energy produced from LECs is also low, so it would be interesting to do that calculation - We would need long-term power/time data and the size of the cathode generating it. We would also need to consider what atmosphere the LEC was put in - which would constrain the possible reactions.

    The principal advantage of a hydrogen atmosphere is probably that it reduces corrosion, a problem when using iron electrodes. However it does not produce the highest currents.


    air>oxygen>hydrogen> vacuum, nitrogen, helium and argon suggest that the electrolyte is electrochemically reactive.


    I have continued collaborating with Frank and Harper on this - the configuration has evolved quite a bit, which Frank will talk about at ICCF-25. But I'm sure that he won't mind me telling you all that it is no longer a gas-spaced cell, but uses an ionic solid spacer, and that we are currently working on pre-treatments - surface conditioning of cathodes - so they have hydrogen-loaded nanotubes growing on them. Cheap, easy and all 'green chemistry.'

    For @THH's comfort I should mention I have seen other systems where you think you have an anomalous effect, but when you keep digging and improving your systems the effect gets smaller and smaller. The difference here is that the effect gets bigger and bigger.

    It is understandable that solid electrolyte allows much higher output power. However, for me, the anomaly is how that treated plate ionises a gas.


    If, now, we have an electrochemical battery (of a weird sort), then there seems much less of an anomaly (for it in that form). You would have to prove total energy output >> chemical and while that is possible it seems a tough call?


    Still, working with solid spacers, it would be interesting to know your current estimates for for "anomaly quotient" (AQ) a figure of merit defined as:

    total observed energy from cell / total bound on chemical energy available from same cell?


    THH

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