Can you provide any details about what needs to change in the standard model and quantum physics?

I'll do that. quantum physics at the moment has no connection with GR. That needs to change. There is much work (many different people) showing how spacetime (and spacetime curvature as in GR) can emerge naturally from quantum entanglement in a physically realistic way:

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1807/1807.06433.pdf (a more speculative one in)

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1901.04554.pdf ( better recent one)

But it does not quite yet work - or rather "much work needs to be done to fill in gaps and make it solid".

Even so this approach has now developed sufficienctly that it would be very surprising if some better "theory of everything" understanding did not emerge from it. Whatever your views about standard model you would have, if you looked at it, to agree with that.

it is not unreasonable to think that when we understand the connection more deeply we will also have an underlying mechanism from which all of the standard model structure can be derived, and possibly a bit more.

Note though that from what we already know, that QM is essential, that the universe was once much hotter, we expect symmetry breaking to introduce arbitrary constants into the world that now appear immutable physical constants.

So looking for answers to "why is this fundamental constant this value" other than on amthropomorphic selection basis will often be fruitless.

A better understanding of the fundamentals will make it clearer to everyone when that is so.