Quote from Abd Ul-Rahman Lomax: “have, I think, a total of two posts deleted out of all that I've written.”
I have a more than 2 deleted just in the past week. I give up.
I am not even being combative. I just want to know what that fellow "Engineer"…
Believe the ERV list is what was proposed. It may have changed. We need the list of the installed instruments and where they were installed to make any comments on the instruments actually used & where installed.
From what I have read, the ERV was to have had all the instruments calibrated by the manufacturer at the intended operational temp, flow & pressure range before and after the 350 day test. If that was done and the calibration certificates presented then we need to accept the operational conditions were appropriate for the instruments installed.
Would also point out that measuring the reactor outlet steam temperature and steam pressure would enable steam quality or dryness to be determined.
Don't get to the forums very much at present. Got sucked into a large contract when one of the other consultants came up short. Very busy.
I think what Piantelli is saying here is that absorption is a competing process for the reaction and should be avoided whenever possible. As far as I know the transition metal clusters he uses are currently in the form of thin films, so there is not much…
Doc as zipped pdf.
Very interesting reading.
Note that at normal superconducting temperatures (10-40K), the RF surface resistance of copper and a superconductor are nearly the same. Copper surface resistance decreases to 0 at 0K. Superconductors only have 0 resistance for DC. For all AC (F>0),…
From the published data, EmDrive copper cavities at room temp at 2.45GHz can have Qu that range up to 100k. Superconducting accelerator cavities, which are also filled with Rf energy, exceed a Qu of 10^9. The function of interest is the skin depth as that forms the loss per cycle that limits Qu (Q unloaded except for eddy current losses).
A video interview by IBTimes with Roger Shawyer should be out in the next week or so.
Oh, well, in THAT case, your promise to built 1000 LENR kits to be sold at US$ 1000 is well underway...
Edit: you devil, you. You didn't know you were using Wikipedia as your source of secret knowledge, besides Mat's book.
The knowledge to build LENR reactors is out there. Jed's library, Piantelli's patents, Focardi's papers, MFMP's work and existing industrial Ni hydrogenation processes are excellent sources. However there is not yet a guaranteed recipe.
To achieve my goal, I needed to start at the beginning and learn how to master the basics first, such as how to successfully hydrogenate Ni. Most think that is easy. I believe it is really difficult.
Another requirement is to believe almost nothing and to experimentally verify everything.
I'm building a system to measure the rate and amount of hydrogenation of Ni and other transitional metals at various pressures, temperatures, hammering molecules, surface ionisation, etc, partly using BET theory.
Goal is to have a easy to follow recipe to obtain good H loading of Ni or other transitional metals.
Plan is end up with an almost totally computerised system so to try to reduce human uncertainty.
Hydrogen atoms bond strongly with a nickel surface, with hydrogen molecules disassociating in order to do so.
Disassociation of hydrogen requires enough energy to cross a barrier.
On a Ni(111) crystal surface the barrier is 46 kJ/mol,
On a Ni(100) crystal surface the barrier is 52 kJ/mol.
On a Ni(110) crystal surface the barrier is 36 kJ/mol.
The surface layer of hydrogen on nickel can be released by heating.
Ni(111) lost hydrogen between 320 and 380 K.
Ni(100) lost hydrogen between 220 and 360 K.
Ni(110) lost hydrogen between 230 and 430 K.
In order to dissolve inside the nickel, hydrogen must migrate from on the surface through the face of a nickel crystal.
This does not take place in a vacuum, but can take place when the hydrogen coated nickel surface is impacted by other molecules.
The molecules do not have to be hydrogen, but they appear to work like hammers punching the hydrogen atoms through the nickel surface to the subsurface.
An activation energy of 100 kJ/mol is required to penetrate the surface.
Alan , by this pump how much pressure you reach ?
it could be enough ( 4 bars ? )
Warning from Piantelli:Quote
In any case, the step 120 of feeding hydrogen
is carried out in order to provide a relative pressure between
0,001 millibar and 10 bar, preferably between 1
millibar and 2 bar, to ensure an optimal number of hits
of the hydrogen molecules 31 against surface 23, avoiding
in particular surface desorption and other undesired
phenomena caused by excessive pressure; furthermore,
the speed 32 of the hydrogen molecules 31 (Fig. 3) is
less than 3 m/s, and has a direction substantially parallel
to surface 23, in order to obtain small angles of impact
39 that assist the adsorption and avoid back emission
If the Ni powder is really made to move at a relatively high speed inside the reactor could it not be that you do not really need hydrides to generate a flux of hydrogen over their surface? The movement of the particles through the gas…
Thanks for the paper.
Another duck & weave around Ni+H releasing energetic protons to trigger the aneutronic p+Li7 fusion reaction.
I remain convinced that these "logistics" problems are the major cause of replications failures .
We can't make fast loading / unloading amplitudes with LAH.
My assumption as well, so will follow the Italians and plan to manually hydrogenate.
Once that is working well, then maybe time to try other hydrogenation methods.
Learn to crawl 1st, before learning to walk, before learning to run, before going to the Olympics.
DIY KISS pre hydrogenated Ni:
Or cook it yourself as do famous Italian Ni hydrogenation chefs:
You don't have to use LiAlH4 as a Hydrogen donor, it is possible to use plain Lithium Hydride. This avoids using the (possibly difficult) Aluminium.
Or just manually hydrogenate the Ni and avoid the added complexity?
Good point Engineer48 unfortunally Li jacket doesn't stick with what we saw at lugano experiment ( Ni sticked at the wall)
Just maybe the Lugano reactor was designed to give away the min secrets and was a special build for Lugano.
finally here some good comments about this point ( reactor building).
About Rossi's patent you have inside mix NI, LAH, and 90% more Li .
About the mix it does for 100g :
50 g Ni,
46,5 g Li
30 g LAH decomposed by 5,5 g Li and 21,3…
Yup on the chemically isolated Li jacket around the Ni.
Except if the Ni has a very high BET area, all that may be needed is to manually hydrogenate, which has significant advantages as you have complete control over the process and no temp or pressure issues as the Li and LiAlH4 is not there to make the process complex.
This may also allow the reactor fuel tube to operate vertically so the liquid Li stays at the bottom of it's jacket.
Mixing the Ni, Li and LiAlH4 all together may actually have made replication much more difficult.
Engineers like KISS.
Quote from Engineer48: “
Why do you think the NI, LI and LiAlH4 are all mixed together as the fuel in a Rossi reactor?”
Why do you think that I think this? I'm saying that it has been the case in all Parkhomov-type experiment conducted…
Plan to have the Li in a chemically isolated jacket around the Ni and to manually hydrogenate the NI prior to the power on, so to avoid needing LiAlH4.
Believe others have successfully used a Li jacket, which of course becomes liquid.
From my reading there is ample info on how to successfully manually hydrogenate the Ni.
Lithium Aluminum Hydride melts at 140-160°C, then solidifies again when it decomposes into Li3AlH6. At higher temperatures Li3AlH6 converts in two steps into LiAl, which is liquid above 700°C. <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithium_aluminium_hydride" class="externalURL" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithium_aluminium_hydride</a>…
Why do you think the NI, LI and LiAlH4 are all mixed together as the fuel in a Rossi reactor?
The energetic photons from the Ni+H reaction can react the Li7 without needing it to be melted over the Ni.
Same for the H- released from the LiAlH4, why does the LiAlH4 need to be in contact with the Ni for the released H to get to the Ni?
Rossi has given hints the reaction chamber design is complex.
Quote from Engineer48: “Quote from axil: “Quote from Engineer48: “Of course powered by energetic protons leaving the Ni+H reaction.”
It would be great is LENR experimenters could validate sup-atomic particle emission from LENR reactors.…
Any you know this is how he measured the proton energies?
BTW that was a cloud chamber. Did it have a magnetic field?