Posts by Zephir_AWT

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    and say that a linear Bose Einstein Condensate of hydrogen might have the same appearance as well


    I already linked the Holmlid picture of his linear Rydberg hydrogen. But BE condensate for hydrogen has no meaning for Lipinski fusion: all protons fuse there immediatel with high yield.

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    How? Luttinger Liquids are formed and studied ONLY unidimensionally, in LINES. They are LINEAR liquids.


    Luttinger liquids were observed in two or more dimensions already. But the important point is, that Luttinger liquids form and remain stable at higher temperatures when they are aligned unidimensionally. And for explanation of this effect the general highdimensional approach would be already useful. Of course, many other approaches are possible: for example Casimir force has been predicted to be stronger between ends of needles (and weaker or even repulsive above cavities) (which also points to common aspects of quantum entanglement and quantum vacuum).

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    As soon as you start extrapolating extradimensionalism from it, you're going pretty far afield


    As I told you above, this model is mechanical and as such 3D only. But once you're introducing quantum mechanics and/or ever Lutinger model into it, then you're already getting extradimensional. Most people don't realize, that Casimir and dipole forces are already extradimensional ones... Just the fact we're giving some force special name from historical etc.. reasons doesn't make it three-dimensional.



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    what force is involved- a contact force as in macroscopic objects or a remote force -is the remote force Coulombic, magnetic or other.


    Which forces are involved, once atoms collide? It depends on particular situation. The momentum conservation law and Astroblaster effect doesn't care about nature of forces involved.

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    Have you tried doing this?


    Nope, I don't see any meaning in this for now. Do you? Lipinski's fusion runs with nearly 100% reliability at the melting point of lithium and 5000 eV energy of protons. Just at the temperature twenty degrees higher it stops. There is not too many alternative explanations for this behavior than lattice arrangement of lithium atoms.


    But 5000 eV is still high energy for chemical processes, so that for explanation of spontaneous fusion within palladium we would need another mechanisms involved. But - why exactly? The palladium fusion has no practical advantage over Lipinski fusion and 5 keV wasted is very affordable price for 8 MeV energy yield. For me the solid state fusion systems aren't very interesting from this perspective - Lipinski fusion is reliable and relatively simple for industrial purposes, end of story. Amateurs could still try to replicate for example the Notoya/Niedra/Patterson's experiments with nickel electrolysis and various catalysts and co-deposition - maybe some surprise is still hidden there. But for me the mystery of cold fusion is already solved from practical perspective.


    Note that 5 kV is within the reach of common microwave oven. You'll need some lithium and hydrogen source and lithium resistant vessel (alumina pipe from street sodium lamp, maybe?). IMO the microwaving of LiAlH4 inside closed vessel could work, vacuum could be replaced by inert gas (argon?). Or you can try Quark-X/ECat-SK arrangement of Me356, which is essentially hydrogen-lithium discharge lamp.

    Regarding the hotspots and their visibility, there is still an iconic experiment of Stan Szpak from SPAWAR observed with thermocamera (transcript). He used cathode in form of nickel mesh and the IR camera looking at the backside of it through a thin mylar window. The hotspots comming from individual nuclear reactions don't destroy the lattice permanently, but they're still energetic enough for being "visible" directly. If you have no thermocamera, you can still detect them with sensitive microphone attached to an electrolytic cell. If nothing else, then this experiment must convince every skeptic about reality of cold fusion, because the direct observation cannot be interpreted in other means possible - yet it didn't happen, because these people don't want to be convinced.


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    IMO it could be estimated by calculus - the atoms vibrate along their average positions and only during brief moment of time their nuclei overlap. Atom nuclei are small relatively to atom - about 30.000x smaller, so that the probability of their overlapping is still low. And just in this moment these atoms should crash hydrogen atoms mutually against each other - so that this probability gets even lower.

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    What kind of change generates 200 kEV for ten minutes after the reactor cools from 700C to 385C?


    It doesn't generate anything, it switches cold fusion reaction on and off. For example, when we cool reactor by 200° C, then the probability that we find five atoms arranged along a single line during one nanosecond rises dramatically. At 700C we can find only three collinear atoms during average nanosecond inside reactor, because atoms already vibrate wildly.


    Cold fusion requires to have atoms arranged in metal lattice. The probability of spontaneous fusion within random system of particles is extraordinarily low, but the proponents of thermodynamic arguments often forget, that the probability that these particles will spontaneously arrange into regular lattice is extremely low as well. Two extreme improbabilities will here beat each other.


    Phase transform of lithium, of course - i.e. melting. Cold fusion requires to have atoms arranged in metal lattice. The probability of spontanous fusion within random system of particles is extraordinarily low, but the proponents of thermodynamic arguments often forget, that the probability that these particles will spontaneously arrange into regular lattice is extremely low as well. Two extreme improbabilities will here beat each other.

    The extreme case of temperature dependence of nuclear reaction is the Lipinski fusion of Unified Gravity. Once the lithium melts, whole the reaction stops, because its atoms aren't arranged anymore. Here not only thermal vibrations - but also phase transform - ads to the resulting effect. For me the evolution of heat and/or formation of particles doesn't serve as the main evidence of cold fusion, because everyone could invent it - but just the occurrence of similar anomalies, which no one could bring it down if he wouldn't observe them by its own eyes.


    Note that Lipinski even doesn't say that nuclear reaction stops, when the lithium melts - it would be still too easy to invent. What he exactly says is, the nuclear reaction stops, once the temperature raises by few dozens of degrees above melting point of lithium. Only few people on the world know, that beneath molten surface of metals arranged crystalline layer of atoms exists even above melting point. If you don't know about it, you cannot invent it and you have to observe it - and thus your story must be real.


    For me just these anecdotal circumstances serve as the reality check and signature of cold fusion.

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    Why does heating a small amount of LENR powder produce different delta background spectra at different temperatures with different total counts/s?


    This is just the feature of cold fusion similar to many heavily catalyzed reactions. Only outcome of fully reversible reactions in chemistry are fully predictable - these catalyzed ones behave often anomalously, because presence of catalyst deforms temperature dependence of activation energy due to various resonance and kinetic effects.


    In particular, my theory of cold fusion is based on undirectional collisions of multiple atoms along a single line. Once such a line forms, they it sends resulting energy and particles along its axis like directional antenna. And not only this - it also absorbs resulting particles (neutrons and gamma) like very effective antenna. This is because - as Feynmann have said - there is "lotta free space at the bottom". Atom nuclei are tiny, the atoms are relatively large. The nucleus has a diameter of 10-14 m, so it is about 10,000 times smaller than the volume of the atom as a whole. One analogy is to imagine the atom is the size of a football stadium. In that gigantic stadium the nucleus would only be the size of a small marble sitting on the 50-yard line! So that neutrons and short wavelength gammas can pass through atom lattice freely. When ten atoms collide along a single line and the neutron is released in their direction, it makes absorber of neutrons as effective as 10,000 x 10 = 100,000 thicker plate. When these atoms reside on the line with the another atoms of atom lattice (as it's common within metal crystals), then the resulting absorption coefficient gets even higher.


    But this all applies only, until all atoms remain strictly collinear. Once the atom nuclei move just a bit because of thermal vibrations, then the neutrons or gammas will not get absorbed anymore and they leave the lattice. This is also why the cold fusion often runs at low temperatures only. The thermal motion of atoms breaks the low-dimensional character of cold fusion and makes it close to hot fusion. Which runs at high temperatures only and it also produces lotta neutrons instead of just alpha particles and another symmetrical products of fusion. Therefore the character of cold fusion changes with increasing temperature radically.


    As Andrea Rossi noted, during thermal runaways his reactor released some neutrons. This is also one of reasons why I believe, that he has really working cold fusion in his hands, because what describes is not so easy to bring up ad hoc without previous experimental experience and this remark apparently follows my own theory about all of it.

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    Gamma rays are not easy to ignore


    The absence of radiation is one of best practical features of cold fusion - so what to look for it? The formation of radiation would merely give arguments to opponents of cold fusion, who fear (not quite nonsensically) its possible future abuse for terrorists and military usage.


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    Neither is Neutrons across CR-39 but very few people would have the means nor access to bring their own CR-39 or Neutron detectors into a Navy Weapons experimental site.


    The CR-39 detectors were indeed positive at the case of co-deposition experiments and they're cheap and easily accessible (1, 2,...) - but I don't understand your "argument" about impossibility of "bringing own CR-39 detectors to some facility" once you want to arrange your own experiments.

    It's no secret that BigOil is not in any way an enemy of LENR. We will always need lotta oil for chemistry and plastic industry. The biggest enemies to watch out for are those with tax payer funding to lose, ie:

    • The Academics, primarily the hot fusionistas. For obvious funding for their research the coming 30 years or so is on the line – We’re talking billions of dollars.
    • The Greens and to some degree politicians in general that have spent many years building an opinion, funding and careers on the illusion of scarcity when it comes to energy. And of the taxation of it, including the AGW agenda, global taxation initiatives, etc.
    • US military entities increasingly worried that they will not get the upper hand on this technology. They want it to difficult and it is not in their interest it being available quickly and everywhere. Entities like SPAWAR, NASA has obviously done research the past 25 years in the dark (with results, but probably not yest anything working). So it is safe to say they are watching.
    • Oil producers locally (mideast etc). But not really the big corps. They are owned mostly by the taxpayer and they will survive fine adjusting to new realities.

    See for example: MIT continues progress toward practical fusion energy Tokamak is futile design of snake oil research - superconductive or not. The speed of fusion at the center of Sun is just few watts per cubic meter at the plasma densities, which are by nine orders higher than inside the tokamaks - go figure your chances for hot fusion from it... MIT (funded by strong industrial lobby) traditionally boycotted cold fusion progress pretty much. And former head of MIT and DOE secretary Ernst Moniz (now head of TriAlpha hot fusion company) fough against cold fusion the most - exactly according to Sifferkoll analysis. Just this single guy managed to delay the USA energy research and energetic sovereignty by at least one decade.

    Bill Gates' Experimental Nuclear Power Plant Halts Construction in China


    In October 2018, U.S. Secretary of Energy Rick Perry said that the United States "cannot ignore the national security implications of China’s efforts to obtain nuclear technology outside of established processes of U.S.–China civil nuclear cooperation.”... In 2017, Gates gave a speech at Peking University saying he was developing nuclear energy that was "dramatically safer and substantially cheaper" than what the world has previously known.


    Umm, what exactly Gates tried to build in China? Traveling wave reactors are everything but "dramatically safer" than classical reactors, as they're inherently prone to runaway. As my knowledge goes, Bill Gates had interest about cold fusion experiments in Italy and he even subsidized its research directly. Also this hall doesn't look exactly like the interior of typical nuclear plant.

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    What this community needs to do is what MFMP almost did in 2013. Set up a relatively easy experiment to replicate, which is one that generates Gamma rays


    For example, the Mossier-Boss/Szpak co-deposition experiments work in this way and they're cheap, well documented and quite reliable. We can even observe the evolution of heat directly by infra-camera there (YouTube video, source). But physicists have their own business plans: to build as large colliders as they can, where they could comfortably and safely survival all crisis burrowed underground like moles. The simple cheap experiments aren't interests of Big Science. It's primary interest is strong central government, which can control masses by redistribution energy from single large hot fusion source - not many distributed sources based on overunity and cold fusion. Nobody would support central government after then - its overgrown Big Science the less.


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    The ignorance of cold fusion by mainstream physics community is one century standing and it has way deeper and more systemic origin, than the lack of cheap reliable experiments. After all, this lack didn't stop the physicists from building of increasingly larger colliders and underground detectors anyway. It's not about ignorance of cold fusion as such, but about willful and intentional decision NOT TO GIVE laymen distributed source of energy at all cost. So we cannot actually convince skeptics in doing cold fusion - they already decided it to ignore it at all cost.

    Here is Piantelli's statement from his patent paper: 6.7 MEV is not so distant from 17 MeV of Hungarian boson


    "More in detail, during the process of orbital capture, H- ions can lose its own couple of electrons and form protons 1H+. A first fraction of the protons 1H+ is subjected to direct nuclear capture reactions by the nuclei of the same atoms of the clusters in which the orbital capture has occurred, while a second fraction of the protons 1H+ can be expelled by Coulomb repulsion from the nucleus of the metal atom where the orbital capture has taken place. The expelled protons have an energy that can be determined and characterised. For instance, in the case of Nickel, this energy is about 6.7 MeV, as detected by a Wilson chamber, on the basis of Bethe's equation. A part of the protons of the second portion, which does not react with other nuclei of the primary material, can leave the latter and interact with a material adapted to give rise to proton- dependent reactions, if this is present."


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    The X-boson has been observed in Hungary during decay of beryllium nuclei just because these nuclei are also elongated - they've character of dumbbell rather than sphere. It's not therefore the artifact of electron shielding (electrons are very lightweight for 6.7 MeV, after all), but atom nuclei shielding. One of reasons, which mainstream physics ignores the research of this effects is, they actually occur at quite low energies - but SuSy research in colliders is oriented to futile search at TeV scale- and the building of large colliders represents too good and stable job for many people involved. I'm pretty sure that SuSy has been already observed in LHC too - but intentionally swept under carpet for not to interfere the building of even larger collider.

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    American physicist Joaquin Mazdak Luttinger in 1963, came up with a mathematical model showing that the effects of one particle on all others in a one-dimensional line would be much greater than in two- or three-dimensional spaces.


    Yes and one of features of dense model is, it predicts this effect on various scales. It's extrapolation of LeSage model of gravity. In this model the gravity arises by shielding of longitudinal waves of vacuum between massive bodies, which leads into excess of virtual photons there (and gravitational lensing). But neighboring massive objects aren't inert for this effect as they can shield the longitudinal waves too. Once they stay along single line (as it's common during solar eclipses and planetary conjunction), this effect multiplies and it leads to concentration of virtual scalar waves along their connection line. The excess of longitudinal waves is also typical for Casimir effect, which applies at short distances. Therefore the attenuated quantum entanglement along long chains of objects is analogous to Allais effect between planets - it's dark matter effect in essence. The pseudoforce generated by it may even lead into establishing a new generation of bosons, which have close connection to supersymetry and which may explain the formation of spiral tracks and emanation of EVO's during fusion. Therefore the cold fusion research would be ideal kindergarden for stringy and susy theorists - the only problem is, it's all based on anomalies which mainstream physics avoids like devil the cross not only for its own bad, but also for bad of the whole human civilization. It's not normal kind of stupidity: it's stupidity squared.


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    You can easily show with conventional math/physics that at low pressure BEC will happen even at room temperature


    This expectation is directly related to expectations of room superconductivity, because superconductivity also requires formation of entangled state of electrons, where charge spreads in waves instead of by particles. And ultraconductors are known from 1986. The trick for their preparation is actually similar to tricks used for cold fusion running - the electrons must get arranged linearly along chains and these chains must be long enough. The electron Cooper pairs work for low temperatures only and we already discussed it here. You may think, that charged channels of ultraconductors are direct analogy of Storm's nanocracks and Piantelli's whiskers.


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    Breather as proposed by Dubinko never ramp up to energies needed to kinetically induce LENR. In fact they stay in chemical range


    Yep, but only until they involve only pair of atoms. Along longer chain of atoms the 1D Mossbauer effect and amplification of energy may occur - and the energy levels achievable increase with number of atoms inside chains geometrically not linearly. Not only speed gets multiplied with number of atoms, but also the inertia of their stack and the energy and momentum is product of both.


    In this way or another, no physical effect of single atom can explain overcoming of Coulomb barrier by itself - the involvement of another atoms must be therefore considered.