Coolescence LLC team in Electochimica Acta : Optimal Surface Doping of Lead for Increased Electrochemical Insertion of Hydrogen into Palladium

  • Coolescence team have published a very technical paper about hydrogen in metal, not LENR, specifically how to improve PdH loading with Pb layer on the surface.

    Not sure this can improve LENR, as in some ICCF19 presentation they have shown that improving loading did not automatically improve LENR excess heat. Anyway this can give ideas.

    Steven C. Hamm, David L. Knies, Olga Dmitriyeva, Richard Cantwell, Matt McConnell wrote:

    Optimal Surface Doping of Lead for Increased Electrochemical Insertion of Hydrogen into Palladium

    Increasing the amount of hydrogen that is electrochemically inserted into materials is important for studying superconductivity and hydrogen embrittlement, and improving hydrogen storage capabilities. Surfaces can be engineered to accomplish this task with better insight into how the composition of a material's first few atomic layers affects the electrochemical insertion of hydrogen. To this end, different amounts of Pb were added to the 0.1 M LiOH electrolyte to be deposited onto Pd cathodes during galvanostatic experiments. The investigated amount of added Pb was between 1 μg cm−2 and 23 μg cm−2 with respect to the geometric area of the Pd cathode. The optimum surface doping level 2.9 μg cm−2 of Pb (∼1.4 mass equivalent monolayers) was found to achieve the highest quantity of inserted hydrogen at approximately −0.5 V vs RHE. Additionally, the hydrogen content increased from PdH0.75 to PdH0.86 with increasing Pb amounts up to 2.9 μg cm−2 at a constant current of −14.5 mA cm−2. For comparison, the same change in hydrogen content from pressurized gas loading experiments would require an increase in hydrogen fugacity from about 6 to 1420 atm. Preliminary analysis concerning the adsorbed hydrogen chemical potential suggests the Pb is affecting the balance between the Volmer, Heyrovsky, and Tafel reaction rates, which changes the hydrogen surface chemical potential, and ultimately controls the hydrogen insertion. Furthermore, the addition of Pb was found to decrease the rate of hydrogen insertion. This work provides a fundamental basis for the future design of metal surfaces yielding enhanced electrochemical hydrogen insertion in Pd and other hydrogen absorbing materials.

    LINK REMOVED - Copyright problem. Alan.

  • A very interesting paper. Especially to me, since I have a strong suspicion - as yet sadly based on only a few experiments - that hydrogen can be loaded directly into solid lead electrodes. We used sodium or potassium carbonate electrolyte containing a small percentage of carbon black in suspension. Loading demands little by way of current, but is a slow process (100-200 hours) that has on several occasions produced a classic sudden burst of heat, radiation, and shot-holed anodes.

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    in some ICCF19 presentation they have shown that improving loading did not automatically improve LENR excess heat

    According to McKubre&Hagelstein the hydrogen load is the main predictor of LENR success. Of course, many other factors can be in the game. For example, once the bulk palladium electrode is used, then the amount of heat released during first start of fusion quenches the electrode due to poor heat transport and it renders it infective for another experiments. This explains, why the excess heat appears only during mild deuterium load and why Szpak did use mesh electrodes only, which can cool itself well. The addition of traces of lead would support my suspicion, that the actual reaction centers aren't palladium atoms: the palladium only improves the saturation of lattice with hydrogen as spillover catalyst, but it's otherwise ineffective. This could explain failure of many early palladium replications once the experimenters did try the very pure palladium samples for the sake of "better reproducibility". Some other elements are known to kill the fusion at palladium instead (for example Patterson did mention sodium ions in this extent).


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    Pd needs high level of loading to produce enough H+ for lenr BECAUSE:

    It's irrelevant what you ARGUE, I linked experimental RESULTS of Hagelstein and McKubre: no speculations and their reasoning about it are necessary anymore. The hydrogen isn't present in Pd in form of H+ only. It is known that hydrogen migrates towards the cathode within the temperature range of 300–473 K in the PdH0.1, but towards the anode at higher temperatures. Axil models are compatible with everything and nothing at the same moment. He already managed to incorporate whole the existing physics into his speculations. He also opposed Ed Storms, if your referenced him.

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    Pd needs high level of loading to produce enough H+ for LENR because the Pd lattice is flexible and expands under loading..

    This is also what Hagelstein has found - no contradiction s here. But the effect of saturation of metal lattice with hydrogen has its limits JUST BECAUSE it's flexible and it EXPANDS during loading - so it loses its compactness and strength. The analogous effect exists with doping of HT superconductors with holes, BTW. One you introduce too much holes into them, they will expand their lattice and Tc goes up instead of down.

  • What Edmund Storms have shown is that loading was required as an initial condition, but that lower loading was allowing excess heat, provided temperature was high enough.

    This also explains Heat-after-death observation where the heat production is observed while the hydride is unloading for long time, and cannot be considered above the usual McKubre observed limit (0.85)...

    the work of I2HMR/Nicolas Armanet, as some articles of Hagelstein, seems coherent with that, as loading and transition from PdD alpha to beta phase (and similar in NiH) is damaging (or not, if temperature is high enough, or enough Ag is alloyed with Pd) the lattice...

    Ed Storms propose that electrodes that have been working, could be deloaded, kept dry, and used in a dry permeation experiment... I don't know iif he have advanced in this verification, but it could be a great idea of experiment.

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    I think very strongly that the LENR are only surface phenomenon

    It would be great, if you would provide experimental sources or at least motivation for such claim. This community is composed of armchair theorists who invent guesses like at the treadmill.

    Personally I disagree with it, it may be only layman impression given the fact, that saturation with hydrogen increases from surface. But the observations of LENR at nanocracks, which must be closed and separated from surface indicate, that the active centers of LENR are actually clusters of impurities or crystal grain boundaries burrowed inside the lattice and separated from surface. Also the effectiveness of cold fusion under hydrogen discharge indicates, that it runs because the ions get implanted beneath surface, not just adsorbed on it.The most interesting Ni-H technology of Piantelli utilizes nickel whiskers for it - and the whisker is essentially one long spiral dislocation inside crystal. Note that such a dislocations are very rigid and robust - the plain inclusion or space between crystal grains are neither strong enough for to withstand pressure of hydrogen, neither arranged well enough for to propagate 1D collisions at distance.

  • Ed Storms propose that electrodes that have been working, could be deloaded, kept dry, and used in a dry permeation experiment... I don't know iif he have advanced in this verification, but it could be a great idea of experiment.

    One of LFH's group members is working on this idea. We will get to hear about it eventually.

  • Ed Storms goes into why some LENR researchers, such as he and McKubre and others, have concluded LENR to be a surface phenomenon in his first book. There are several lines of evidence that suggest this is the case in the PdD system. One line of evidence is that in a series of cathode helium assays, helium was found to decrease with increasing depth into the cathode. There are several other lines of evidence as well.

    But: (1) The evidence is rather circumstantial, as we don't have a handle on what the LENR reaction is, or whether it is even a single reaction, so things like helium assays must be relied upon. (2) Any conclusions would best be scoped to those systems from which the circumstantial evidence is taken, e.g., PdD electrolysis. (3) We need not assume that LENR is always a surface reaction, even if we go along with the possibility that it is in some cases. Another possibility which cannot at the present time be refuted, although it might not be easy to support with experimental evidence, is that LENR is sometimes a surface reaction and sometimes is not. (4) Not all LENR researchers are on board with the conclusion about LENR being a surface reaction; Mitchell Swartz, for example, does not believe this to be the case.

  • Is Mr. Storms still active in physical experimentation or is he concentrating on theoryl?

    He recently have done some serious but small-scale experiment with PdD, obtaining beside usual replication, some interesting results (that temperature not loading is controlling the reaction, while loading is required initially)

    He have published both on these experiments, and on his theory…lishes-two-storms-papers/

    His theory is, as I interpret it, the "cri du coeur" of an experimentator, fed up with QM upfront theories ignoring many experimental results he knows well. (Note that he is also criticized on the same point)

    His other great contribution beside experiments, is reviewing papers, experimental and theory.

    His now old book : The Science of LENR is a reference.

    You can even read his recent more theoretical book "the explanation of LENR" just for the quick review of experimental results and theories.

    He is probably partly wrong, but I suspect much less than average, as I feel he tries to be much more focused on experimental results than on mathematical points (which makes his proposal be heavily criticized).

  • Thanks all. I appreciate the information.

    As with Piantelli, I have not heard where Mr. Storms has an understudy.

    The universities at Texas and Missouri have programs that hopefully will be training younger scientist in the field, but they will need to

    make a living after graduation. (Probably not much opportunity for decent paying jobs there at present!) So what is the likelihood of

    them continuing in the field?

    Does not seem like an encouraging situation at the moment.

  • He propose not exact surface, which he considers as impossible because of chemistry annoyance , but nanostructure, a NAE, like cracks where hydrogen may react in a new way, not annoyed by chemistry around... He guess a linear association, which is hard to justify without strong interaction with the metallic wall of the crack or whatever it is.

    He is criticized because his theory need precision in this domain, and this is exactly why I think he is right...

    what prevent many people to find the theory is that they want to find instantly something that is precise and coherent mathematically, which sadly often does not match experiment.

    I think a key to the new theory is to stay modest, conclude what we can conclude, that it is near surface, localized in a rare structure, allowing a collective nuclear reaction with hydrogen nuclei, which react slowly not producing MeV energy in one quantum...

    saying it is metallic hydrogen is speculating a bit farther than Ed, and maybe crack is one speculation too far...

    It is a nano-structure near the surface containing collectively associated hydrogen.

    Evidences says no more.

    NB: this is based on no new physics, and conservation of miracle euristic. if you allow new physics or coincidences of miracles, all is possible.

  • By the way about the initial article , I remember that some experiment showed the importance of some Pt trace deposit on the Pd cathode, that seemed to improve loading...

    I remember also of some experiments with gold layer...

    My memory is weak... I suspect it is in "the science of LENR"... not sure.