Collective low energy nuclear reaction may cause overunity in Graneau’s water explosion

  • The so called Erosion phenomenon was discovered in a series of electrolytic experiments marked by unexplained changes in a pool of cooling water outside of the catalytic cell. After 40 minutes of electrolytic cell operation, water on the tungsten anode side of the cooling vessel started losing its transparency.


    Water on the stainless steel cathode of the pool of cooling water remained transparent, at the same 40 C temperature. A sample of bubbly water, removed from the anode side, was tested for induced gamma radioactivity. No such radioactivity was found in it; the sample became transparent after 24 hours. Attempts to reproduce the long-term loss of cooling water transparency with other electrolytes, and under different electrical discharge conditions, were not successful. But the effect was highly reproducible when experimenting with the tungsten-anode electrolytic cell and the 7 M KF electrolyte containing 50% of heavy water.


    341fig1.jpg


    That cooling water on the outside of the electrolytic cell's glass reactor shell at the right side (see Figure 1) is close to the anode while cooling water on the left side is close to the cathode. The disappearance of bubbles, after the electrolysis, was very slow (half-life of about 10 hrs). Attempts to explain the phenomenon in terms of cavitation, and other ultrasonic effects, were not successful. The only satisfactory explanation was possible within the framework of the erzion model. Authors believe that bubbles are produced through the action of neutral Erzions.


    Reference:


    http://file.scirp.org/pdf/JMP20100400005_87444817.pdf


    Study of the Electric Explosion of Titanium Foils in

    Uranium Salts


    One of the pivotal insight provided by Leonid I. Urutskoev in this study of the nature of the LENR reaction is that transmutation occurs at a distance and at a latter time from the source of the LENR reaction.


    Conclusions


    The key experimental results presented in this paper can

    be summarized as follows.


    1) The electric explosion of a titanium foil in an uranyl

    salt entailed a marked distortion of the initial U isotope

    distribution in the solution. The “lower” sample ( ~ 2-3

    cm3) shows depletion in 235U (Rlw = 0.94  0.01), while

    the “upper” sample ( ~ 10 cm3) shows a more pronounced

    enrichment (Rup = 1.18  0.07).


    2) The processes initiated by the electric explosion result

    in a decrease in the specific concentrations of both U

    isotopes but the 238U concentration decreases to a larger

    extent, giving rise to “enrichment effect”.


    3) At the instant of electric explosion, no induced uranium

    fission is observed and no fission neutrons are detected.


    4) Within 1-3 ms after the end of current pulse, gas

    counters filled with 3He detected some signals having, in

    all probability, electromagnetic origin.


    5) At the instant of electric explosion, the 234Th secular

    equilibrium in the uranyl solution was disturbed. The

    most pronounced disturbance of the secular equilibrium

    was observed in “lower” samples, and subsequently the

    equilibrium was restored with the period T = 24.5 days.

    In the “upper” samples, the 234Th equilibrium was disturbed

    to a much lesser extent and the time variation was

    almost missing.


    6) In some experiments, -measurements of the “upper”

    samples revealed disturbance of the equilibrium

    between the 234Th 92.5 keV doublet and the 1001 keV

    -line of its daughter product, 234mPa, i.e. within the

    proper thorium decay chain.


    As posited by Holmlid, LENR produces muons. This particles are highly penetrating and will induce nuclear reactions at a distance and delayed in time from the point of their creation. The bubbles in the Erzion phenomenon are likely helium bubbles produced by muon catalyzed fusion. Erzions are really muons that produce delayed nuclear reactions at a distance from their point of creation.


    The lack of gamma radiation might be explained through the entangled connection between the muons and the source of their creation. Energy produced by the muon induced nuclear reaction is transported back to the source of the LENR reaction.


    The Erzion experiment can be used to experimentally analyze the nature of the LENR reaction in great detail by placing various types of shielding between the LENR reaction and the bubble formation. The role of distance between the muon source might be determined and muon detectors might be used in the experiments.

  • Quote

    As posited by Holmlid, LENR produces muons


    As posited by Holmlid himself, he doesn't do LENR but hot fusion:


    No, I research not about cold fusion, I research on laser-induced hot fusion. It enables us to reach a temperature of between 50 and MK 500 MK
    in the plasma. This one can measure both the neutron energy distributions (published) and from electron energy distributions (to be
    adopted soon). It is the temperature that needs to be reached to get the core processes that move with sufficient speed. It might seem
    strange that this is higher than the established temperature in the solar interior, but it depends on the core processes inside the sun goes
    very slowly.


    Not suprisingly, under his conditions the muons are formed, but such a conditions (and muon production) was nowhere observed during actual cold fusion. Your muon stuff - which you're so fixated to - has nothing to do with common cold fusion mechanism.


    Quote

    After 40 minutes of electrolytic cell operation, water on the tungsten anode side of the cooling vessel started losing its transparency. But the effect was highly reproducible when experimenting with the tungsten-anode electrolytic cell and the 7 M KF electrolyte containing 50% of heavy water.


    This is trivial chemistry, because the tungsten oxides are pale and they aren't soluble in water. If you use tungsten as an anode, it will always make solution turbid after while. If you create sparks on it, it will erode and oxidize even under cathodic polarization and no nuclear transmutation is behind it.


    X5frk2a.jpg

  • As posited by Holmlid himself, he doesn't do LENR but hot fusion:


    No, I research not about cold fusion, I research on laser-induced hot fusion. It enables us to reach a temperature of between 50 and MK 500 MK
    in the plasma. This one can measure both the neutron energy distributions (published) and from electron energy distributions (to be
    adopted soon). It is the temperature that needs to be reached to get the core processes that move with sufficient speed. It might seem
    strange that this is higher than the established temperature in the solar interior, but it depends on the core processes inside the sun goes
    very slowly.


    This is old thinking. Holmlid has upgraded his opinion here below in his newest research:


    http://journals.plos.org/ploso…69895#pone.0169895.ref007




    Quote

    Thus, it is apparent that the particle energy observed is derived from other nuclear processes than ordinary fusion.

  • The nuclear processed forming pions and kaons (2nd generation baryons) are even more distant from LENR energy scale, than muon experiments. The infrared laser pulses are very effective and concentrated source of energy and not accidentally it's the most rich source of antimatter known to science - even the giant LHC collider cannot produce them with such an efficiency. Draw the conclusion for yourself.

  • The nuclear processed forming pions and kaons (2nd generation baryons) are even more distant from LENR energy scale, than muon experiments. The infrared laser pulses are very effective and concentrated source of energy and not accidentally it's the most rich source of antimatter known to science - even the giant LHC collider cannot produce them with such an efficiency. Draw the conclusion for yourself.


    The LASER power level in the Holmild experiment is minimal with the lower power level of 32 millijoules. This power level is below what can be found in a laser pointer.

  • This is average power, but nanosecond pulses would multiply it by factor 10E9. Also the commercial laser achieve way more collimated beam than some laser pointer - by factor 100 - 1000. In addition they're perfectly polarized - so you can achieve way higher power density in one direction multiplied by another factor. And we shouldn't forget the spectral density - the laser diode laser pointer is far from monochromatic.

  • This is average power, but nanosecond pulses would multiply it by factor 10E9. Also the commercial laser achieve way more collimated beam than some laser pointer - by factor 100 - 1000. In addition they're perfectly polarized - so you can achieve way higher power density in one direction multiplied by another factor.


    Holmlid: "The laser beam is focused at the test surface with an f = 400 mm spherical lens. The intensity in the beam waist of (nominally) 30 um diameter is relatively low, <= 10^12Wcm^2 as calculated for a Gaussian beam"


    By the way, Sveinn Olafsson: "Leif has applied fast high electric field and sees meson signal"



  • It could work, the spark discharge is also low-dimensional beam of energy (especially under low impedance conditions). But the muon formation is definitely an overshot, not cold fusion. You want to fuse the atom nuclei, not to break them into particle fragments.

  • Could you be kind enough to expand your thinking on this concept...its priorities and purpose and other factors of importance

    axil: If you can find a process/mechanism to accumulate about 105MeV inside the orbitsphere (Plank mass equivalent radius) of a muon, the you can promote an electron to a muon.

    May be you find a way to do it...

  • axil: If you can find a process/mechanism to accumulate about 105MeV inside the orbitsphere (Plank mass equivalent radius) of a muon, the you can promote an electron to a muon.

    May be you find a way to do it...


    I have many times described the process by which a proton is destabilized as the mechanism observed by Holmlid in the production of mesons from proton decay.. A magnetic field produces instantons inside the proton that tends to interrupt strong force processes.


    See


    The process by which the proton decays in LENR

  • This is all nonsense, there are many other way less stable particles which could decay during LENR, like the neutron. And the decay of proton is endothermic reaction: it doesn't produce energy but it consumes it - which is also the reason, why the protons are so stable and the Universe doesn't disappear before our eyes. Axill should finally learn some physics and also logical thinking...

  • And the decay of proton is endothermic reaction: it doesn't produce energy but it consumes it - which is also the reason, why the protons are so stable and the Universe doesn't disappear before our eyes.


    This statement does not hold up under experimental determination. Do you have a reference for this statement?

  • This statement does not hold up under experimental determination


    axil : Learn to interpret experiments: Protons are nearly perfect dense matter. More than 80% of the "mass-energy" is stored in the so claimed quark-fields. - In Mills terminology captured photons inside the orbitsphere. You must first pump in this energy to free the particles!!


    If Holmlid sees excess energy, it is not coming from proton decay. It comes from muon induced secondary fusion and hydrogen LENR reactions. Whether at all protons are cracked or not is only important to understand, what drives the follow up reactions.

  • axil : Learn to interpret experiments: Protons are nearly perfect dense matter. More than 80% of the "mass-energy" is stored in the so claimed quark-fields. - In Mills terminology captured photons inside the orbitsphere. You must first pump in this energy to free the particles!!


    If Holmlid sees excess energy, it is not coming from proton decay. It comes from muon induced secondary fusion and hydrogen LENR reactions. Whether at all protons are cracked or not is only important to understand, what drives the follow up reactions.



    http://journals.plos.org/ploso…69895#pone.0169895.ref007


    Quote

    The origin of the particle signals observed here is clearly laser-induced nuclear processes in H(0). The first step is the laser-induced transfer of the H2(0) pairs in the ultra-dense material H(0) from excitation state s = 2 (with 2.3 pm H-H distance) to s = 1 (at 0.56 pm H-H distance) [2]. The state s = 1 may lead to a fast nuclear reaction. It is suggested that this involves two nucleons, probably two protons. The first particles formed and observed [16,17] are kaons, both neutral and charged, and also pions. From the six quarks in the two protons, three kaons can be formed in the interaction. Two protons correspond to a mass of 1.88 GeV while three kaons correspond to 1.49 GeV. Thus, the transition 2 p → 3 K is downhill in internal energy and releases 390 MeV. If pions are formed directly, the energy release may be even larger. The kaons formed decay normally in various processes to charged pions and muons. In the present experiments, the decay of kaons and pions is observed directly normally through their decay to muons, while the muons leave the chamber before they decay due to their easier penetration and much longer lifetime.

  • Quote

    Two protons correspond to a mass of 1.88 GeV while three kaons correspond to 1.49 GeV. Thus, the transition 2 p → 3 K is downhill in internal energy and releases 390 MeV.


    This is nonsense at so many levels, it has no even meaning to argue it. The protons cannot decay to kaons without production of many other particles (and violation of baryon and lepton number conservation). At any case, these processes have nowhere to take place in normal cold fusion, just under highly focused and transient laser pulses, which are supplying the energy required.

  • This is nonsense at so many levels, it has no even meaning to argue it. The protons cannot decay to kaons without production of many other particles (and violation of baryon and lepton number conservation). At any case, these processes have nowhere to take place in normal cold fusion, just under highly focused and transient laser pulses, which are supplying the energy required.


    The proton decay idea cannot be impossible because there has be $billions spent for projects looking for it. The Kamiokande project, and the Super-Kamiokande project has been built looking for proton decay and the Hyper-Kamiokande project will be built to improve the resolution of proton decay detection. To improve your understanding of particle theory, you might undertake a study of the history of proton decay research and the theories that are behind it.

  • Quote

    The proton decay idea cannot be impossible because there has be $billions spent for projects looking for it


    This is the silliest argument I even heard here. Mainstream physics keeps many such a similar billion projects - failed indeed. At any case, the decay of proton cannot serve as a source of heat for LENR from multiple reasons. You're just collecting all esoteric stuff which you don't understand and promoting it as a theory of cold fusion.