LENR is occurring in SAFIRE

  • They don't seem to acknowledge it but Holmlid has a way of producing -muons at much lower energy than 5000 MeV - same thing may be occurring with hydrino-based systems.

    The nuclear fusion reaction can be catalyzed in a suitable fusion fuel by muons (heavy electrons), which can temporarily form very tightly bound mu-molecules. Muons can be produced by the decay of negative pions, which, in turn, have been produced by an accelerated beam of light ions impinging on a target. Muon-catalyzed fusion is appropriately called “cold fusion” because the nuclear fusion also occurs at room temperature. For practical fusion energy generation, it appears to be necessary to have a fuel mixture of deuterium and tritium at about liquid density and at a temperature of the order of 1000 K. The current status of muon-catalyzed fusion is limited to demonstrations of scientific breakeven by showing that it is possible to sustain an energy balance between muon production (input) and catalyzed fusion (output). Conceptually, a muon-catalyzed fusion reactor is seen to be an energy amplifier that increases by fusion reactions the energy invested in nuclear pion-muon beams. The physical quantity that determines this balance is Xμ, the number of fusion reactions each muon can catalyze before it is lost. Showing the feasibility of useful power production is equivalent to showing that Xμ can exceed a sufficiently large number, which is estimated to be ∼104 if standard technology is used or ∼103 if more advanced physics and technology can be developed. Since a muon can be produced with current technology for an expenditure of ∼5000 MeV and 17.6 MeV is produced per fusion event, it follows that Xμ ≈ 250 would be a significant demonstration of scientific breakeven. Current experiments have measured Xμ 150. Therefore, the energy cost of producing muons must be reduced substantially before muon-catalyzed fusion reactors could seriously be considered. The physics of muon-catalyzed fusion is summarized and discussed. Muon catalysis is surveyed for the following systems: proton-deuteron, deuteron-deuteron, deuteron-triton, and non-hydrogen elements. The idea of muon catalysis in a plasma medium is also presented. The formation of mu-atoms and mu-molecules and their disintegration in a condensed plasma are calculated. It seems that in a homogeneous plasma, there are no values of temperature and density appropriate for achieving the desired Xμ ≈ 1000. New ideas that might lead to the goal of 1000 fusions per muon by the use of laser beams or selective electromagnetic radiation are suggested.

  • There might be a way around the alpha particle sticking problem too ...

    Contribution of Muon Catalyzed Fusion to Fusion Energy Development
    K. Nagamine 1, 2), T. Matsuzaki 1), K. Ishida 1), S. N. Nakamura 1, 3), N. Kawamura 1),
    Y. Matsuda 1)
    1) Muon Science Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan
    2) Meson Science Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK),
    Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    3) Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi,
    e-mail contact of main author: [email protected]
    Abstract. Recent experimental studies on muon catalyzed fusion (µCF) process of D-T mixture have uncovered
    anomalously large muon (µ–) regeneration from the (µα) + stuck atom formed after nuclear fusion in dtµmolecule.
    The result has opened a new direction towards a realization of the break-even. In addition, highintensity hadron accelerator projects for neutron source etc. will realize kW µCF reactor once advanced muon
    generator be installed. Considering these new trends, we may be able to develop the fusion energy related R&D
    program based upon the µCF process such as materials irradiation facility, tritium breeding, fundamental plasma
    physics, etc.

  • Fusion is way denser, but damages materials with particles produced. The hydrino formation (if real as described), while not as energy dense, would be safer at high energy outputs with a simpler reactor than a muon catylized fusion system of the same energy output. I could imagine a small system where you have a long lived sipping 3MWth muon catylized fusion reactor with shielding and such designed for that level of flow. The catch would be that to load follow or increase power output you could have a "less efficient" but still remarkable hydrino reaction "afterburner" pushing it up to 12MWth or something.

    So at high power you trade burning more cheaper hydrogen, but save on shielding weight and the complexities of high energy nuclear effects. Small amounts of dense D-T and D-D fuel reactions will form a long lasting compact baseload. Fuel flexibility and higher load capacity if propelling a mobile system, lovely?😁

  • Use strategies to increase UDH/hydrino formation in a Mizuno-type reactor then, or couple it to the muon-generator?

    Good Morning, Yes! More a compact muon based fusion reactor like Holmids research coupled with the compact Z-pinch reactor research at LLP, but in order to stay compact and release shielding bulk when throttled to higher output you have a UDH/Hydrino heavy mode. Seems like it should work from a moment skimming related proposed theories on a surface level. *shrugs*

    Edit: Now i see what you are saying with the Mizuno type reactor hybrid with a Suncell type reactor. The Mizuno one has a known COP of 5-10 while the Suncell has a known COP of about 5. If one powers or is engineered as the "afterburner" of the other that is a theoretical cumulative max COP of 50.