Albiston/FluxHeat Mizuno Analogue Experiments

  • Thank you magicsound. Very useful analysis. Have you tried an oxidized region as can and Storms have suggested?


    Nope, but it's possible to color the surface with a gas torch. That creates a very thin layer of oxide though. The color is only visible near the angle of light incidence, suggesting the oxide layer thickness is around the wavelength of visible light. It doesn't change much from additional heating once formed, and it leaves the Ni dead soft, almost like Al foil, making depositing any Pd from burnishing unlikely.




    The most common form Ni[II]O is the form in nature from which Ni metal is refined. Here's a quote from https://chem.libretexts.org/Bo…etals/Chemistry_of_Nickel

    "Nickel oxide is a powdery green solid that becomes yellow on heating. It is difficult to prepare this compound by simply heating nickel in oxygen and it is more conveniently obtained by heating nickel hydroxide, carbonate or nitrate. Nickel oxide is readily soluble in acids but insoluble in hot and cold water."


    There's also "Nickel(III) oxide Ni2O3. It is not well characterised,[1] and is sometimes referred to as black nickel oxide." (Wiki).

  • To be honest, when Edmund Storms wrote about "sheets" I took that literally and imagined the usage of relatively thick and rigid sheets of metal that could withstand significant loads without crumbling up, not foils. Also, it's probably important that the substrate doesn't deform while Pd expands–contracts upon beta-PdH (or PdD) formation–decomposition, an important step for activating the material (forming gaps/NAE) for excess heat production according to Storms' hypothesis.


  • when Edmund Storms wrote about "sheets" I took that literally and imagined the usage of relatively thick and rigid sheets of metal that could withstand significant loads without crumbling up, not foils.


    Such materials would not roll up to fit in the Mizuno-like cylindrical reactor. The foil I have is 0.1 mm (.004 inch) and is pretty robust. It's also fully hardened from the rolling process and will work pretty well as a substitute for the mesh. A thicker foil, perhaps as much as 0.3 mm might still be flexible enough to use, but 1 mm or thicker plate would probably be too stiff to roll up.

  • magicsound

    What about stacked sheets? Depending on the amount of Pd that can be transferred on thicker sheets with a much greater burnishing force it might not even be needed to fill the entire round cell volume with them. They could be kept separated and neatly arranged with spacers and so on. Or you could still have them circularly arranged if you had to.


  • Whether or not we like plating or sputtering at least, these ways are highly reproducible.

    Mizuno probably reached XH with his manual method ( one shot ?), at random from Pd deposition. Now even if teams reached the same level of result as Mizuno, they are trapped because don't know how to improve this very hazardous deposition process.


    To be honest, when Edmund Storms wrote about "sheets" I took that literally and imagined the usage of relatively thick and rigid sheets of metal that could withstand significant loads without crumbling up, not foils. Also, it's probably important that the substrate doesn't deform while Pd expands–contracts upon beta-PdH (or PdD) formation–decomposition, an important step for activating the material (forming gaps/NAE) for excess heat production according to Storms' hypothesis.


  • To be honest, I think that the burnishing method is the scientific equivalent of rubbing a baby with goose-fat to cure a cough. Sometimes it will appear to work in spectacular fashion, most often it will fail. I which case we blame the goose for having the wrong kind of fat, or the child for having the wrong kind of cough.


    Sputtering, plating, thermo-chemical deposition all seem to be more easily and reliably reproducible. And reproducibility is the difference between science and art.

  • I'm agree however can your sketch sounds well. You well understood that D/H diffuse across Pd but stopped by Nickel wall.

    By the same principle, using a ceramic wall ( Al2O3,ZrO2) will do the same.

    The main target to reach should be rather trapping high rate D/H at interface then playing with IR waves, i suggest.

    The only interest of Ni mesh ( shape) could be its specific behavior regarding IR's.


    To be honest, I think that the burnishing method is the scientific equivalent of rubbing a baby with goose-fat to cure a cough. Sometimes it will appear to work in spectacular fashion, most often it will fail. I which case we blame the goose for having the wrong kind of fat, or the child for having the wrong kind of cough.


    Sputtering, plating, thermo-chemical deposition all seem to be more easily and reliably reproducible. And reproducibility is the difference between science and art.

  • Alan Smith

    Besides the degree of randomness it will add compared to other methods, a possibly important characteristic of Mizuno's novel burnishing process is that oxides or other impurities may get introduced in the deposition layer. Electro- or electroless plating is often done (as in the case of Pd here) in a fairly acidic solution which will strip the substrate clean.


    It's probably not a commercially useful technique (although by using sturdier substrates it might be possible to automate it with power tools), but it's cheap to experiment with and can be easily adapted with other materials which might not be straightforward to chemically deposit, or enhanced with additional steps. [**]


    It might be useful to know whether Mizuno prefers burnishing or plating Pd for his latest meshes.




    [**] In some of my past tests for example I attempted alternating Al with other metals in an attempt to deliberately introduce Al2O3 (often used as a substrate in real catalysts), but after oxidizing such layer (I recall correctly) the surface can become slippery and subsequently more difficult to further burnish.

  • can

    According to own thoughts, i will suggest an metal alloy with for example Pd+Al2O3 to increase phonons so IRs influence.


  • Maybe the diamond-coated nickle-substrate abrasive pads as used in the Lion experiment would be more useful for burnishing? They would certainly remove a lot of Pd in close association with the metal substrate, and we already know that diamonds have some interesting functions as regards electron emission and so on. The particular types available vary, but this is typical.


    https://www.protilertools.co.u…400-grit-prm400grit/47092

  • Alan Smith

    Depending on their coverage the diamond islands might not bond well with the removed Pd (they after all are not intended to), and only some might get firmly deposited around their edges. It would have to be tried, but it's an interesting idea.


    Perhaps burnishing with slight amounts of industrial diamond dust could also work (sometimes I proposed the usage of a custom abrasive "paste" or "powder" mixture including CaCO3 for burnishing; one might as well add industrial diamonds) as some of the particles may get incorporated in the substrate, but this could be hazardous depending on particle size (they could be easily inhaled).


    In some explorations on the burnishing process (no actual test performed in a reactor tube) in the past months I tried applying graphite powder on the substrate, which penetrates well surface irregularities and initially has a long-lasting lubricating effect (it's a known dry lubricant), but as burnishing with other metals proceeds, temperatures increase and the graphene sheets composing the graphite particles dry up and finish sliding off each other, they start becoming abrasive and removing material from the metal pieces involved. For similar reasons, graphite parts are easy to machine but often wear up tools at a significant rate, see for example: https://www.practicalmachinist…der-damage-v-ways-156581/


    Industrial diamonds would be abrasive right away.


    Cydonia

    That would require access to the proper tools for producing small quantities of such alloy. Burnishing Al on top of a previously deposited Pd layer, on the other hand, would be very accessible and simple to accomplish.



    All of these ideas require of course a will to experiment with more or less large departures from Mizuno's own protocol.

  • Well can

    my current thought are going to IRs.

    I take in account electronic band structure generated by quantum mechanics both with thermal capacity of elements to consider how an alloy could influence phonon's propagation to brake electron's.

  • I try to look at what can be done with reasonable effort, expenses and practicality. Experimenting with usable amounts of various custom palladium alloys might end up being an expensive exercise as it's not clear what would work or be needed exactly.


    I found an Al-Pd alloy phase diagram online, for what it's worth:

    http://www.himikatus.ru/art/phase-diagr1/Al-Pd.php




    On a loosely related note regarding practicality, to maintain a stable circular arrangement inside a tubular reactor, thick sheets as suggested earlier could perhaps be bolted onto rings. By calculating measurements correctly, a standard sheet size could be used, making them interchangeable, and the same mounting holes could be used to bolt the sheets onto a sturdy support to assist the burnishing step.



    Probably not entirely related with your reply but I needed an excuse to post these drawings.

  • various custom palladium alloys


    Since this subject has been raised, here's an interesting recent paper on successful synthesis of Pd-B alloy nanospheres. The work was done at Nanjing U

    https://pubs.rsc.org/en/conten…a/c9ta09822d#!divAbstract


    The full article is readable through Sci-Hub.


    And another one of immediate relevance - an expired patent for electro-less plating of Pd-B alloy on Ni substrate:

    https://patentimages.storage.g…7d9482e1658/US4341846.pdf

  • i well understood your thoughts by Pd-B alloy, finally the same target as LaNi5, spread the lattice.

    By binary alloy i suggested some of them with a large conductivity difference between each metal.

    My idea would be to modify phonons behavior in this way, relevance should be assessed by asking Hagelstein, may be ?

    Iron/copper should be nice or nickel/aluminium, as we saw recently by the more powerful Japanese powder knew.

    i will suggest also to have a gap in wavelength between H/D VS catalyst.

    In few words an H/D ambiant T° up to very hot catalyst to reach metastable resonance ( 10nm to 3nm catalyst)

    i guess about R20 was its big dead volume which carried colder H/D up to Ni mesh by convection.


  • magicsound

    Supplementary information provided with the paper with a description of the process for synthesizing and analyzing the nanoparticles produced is freely accessible here: http://www.rsc.org/suppdata/c9/ta/c9ta09822d/c9ta09822d1.pdf


    It seems a somewhat involved process; the resulting nanomaterial could also be difficult to handle safely. The electroless plating method of a Pd-B alloy from the expired patent seems on a first sight more practical for these Mizuno replications, but the plating bath could be expensive (Mizuno apparently started using the rubbing process instead of electroless plating because of this, although he didn't use boron).


    Meshes would probably be more useful for the plating method due to their larger surface area (which is mostly unused when manually rubbing Pd or other materials), but the Pd-B nanoparticles will be possibly better and more safely applied as an ink (like the authors of the paper do) on sheets.



    On a related note, the boron reference reminded me that Edmund Storms mentioned on page 2 in his paper on Mizuno's burnishing process that it was sometimes added to Pd in order to purify it, and that Pd batches that consistently showed excess heat may have contained it.


    Quote

    (...) If this description were correct, it would be expected to apply to all Pd found to produce LENR. I predict that commercial Pd observed to support LENR contains
    similar unintended inclusions that remain in the metal after the refining process and were not altered when the metal was formed into wire or sheet. Consequently, most
    pieces of the batch are found to produce LENR regardless of the final form created by physical means. This behavior explains why some batches of commercial Pd produce
    LENR for no obvious reason.


    As an example, Fleischmann has described how boron is added to the molten Pd during the purification process to remove oxygen by formation of insoluble boron oxide, which floats to the surface and is physically removed. In view of the Storms model, the small pieces of oxide scattered throughout would make the Pd eventually nuclear active rather than the absence of oxygen.

  • I have mentioned several times that a solution of Pd Acetate in Acetone can be painted onto clean nickel mesh and then decomposed at relatively low temperature to leave nano-Pd 'islands' stuck to the mesh. You can add other materials to the lix too, particularly Silver acetate. This is a very simple method, used by Arata and others.

  • I have mentioned several times that a solution of Pd Acetate in Acetone can be painted onto clean nickel mesh and then decomposed at relatively low temperature to leave nano-Pd 'islands' stuck to the mesh. You can add other materials to the lix too, particularly Silver acetate. This is a very simple method, used by Arata and others.


    Not too expensive either, 500 mg for $55 from Sigma. Certainly worth a try. Why didn't Mizuno use this?


    There's a good Wiki article on its common uses in chemical catalysis.

  • Manual burnishing produces a durable multi-layered coating that does not easily come off, at least from what I've tested with the cheap materials that I could deposit this way onto steel supports. Will the nano-islands obtained after painting such solutions on Ni have similar characteristics after drying?


    EDIT: then there's also the potential issue that not everybody is eligible to purchase the required ready-made chemicals from Sigma-Aldrich or similar vendors, whereas anybody with some economic effort can get a plain commercial-grade palladium metal chip to rub on various supports.