Albiston/FluxHeat Mizuno Analogue Experiments

  • Why didn't Mizuno use this?

    From his earlier paper..2017..

    "Rub the surface with pure palladium. The palladium will adhere to the mesh.

    Alternatively, the palladium can be plated onto the mesh (plating solution: Tanaka Inc., PDMO2LB).

    This is the key step. In an industrial process, a similar material might be fabricated by some other method such as Nano-sintering."

    I think Mizuno may have tried plating solutions but perhaps he found that it was easier to experiment with burnishing

  • PdCl2 is also available

    I think the currentless(spontaneous) deposition works for PdCl2 too.


    Pd deposition: 4 x10-5 mol dm-3
    Pd2+ (from PdCl2) containing 10-3 mol dm-3 HCl solution was used for

    preparation of Pd/Ni electrodes at room temperature (T = 293 K)


    The optimal conditions were achieved through a spontaneous deposition in open cell without deoxygenation the solution. "

    Whether this is optimal for hot R20 conditions is

    a matter of research.

  • can : It was presumably so, But that's the charm of Ebay. I recently bought a several pieces of Zirconium foil ex Goodfellow for just a few pounds. when Goodfellow lists it at many ( 200) times that. Sometimes people just don't know what to do with stuff they acquire from lab clearances.

  • Earlier I linked a burnishing test I made several weeks ago with copper on a partially oxidized carbon steel blade. Today I attempted again the novel Mizuno burnishing process with a 1975 Canadian nickel 5c coin on a somewhat oxidized mild steel plate. From the manufacturing year it should be composed of 99.9% Ni. My own sample is heavily corroded from several past experiments.

    I think I'm indeed plating nickel on steel, given that the oxide formed (not a lot) after damping the piece with 10% HCl solution has a slight blue-green tint rather than the typical iron oxide brown—besides the change in surface color and texture. I haven't even applied a lot of force; possibly the surface oxides that come off while rubbing the pieces together either act as abrasives or some other mechanism is at play that makes the deposition process easier than what other people have reported with meshes while replicating the Mizuno experiment.

    As more of what I think NiO formed (following exposure to HCl) the piece became more slippery compared to the initial surface conditions with light amounts of Fe2O3. However this might have simply been the surface becoming smoother from oxide removal by the rubbing action.

    After burnishing the piece several times I attempted a flame test with a gas stove flame. In my mind I pictured that it would give a green flame, and one was indeed obtained. Unfortunately I didn't make a video.

    However, I haven't been able to find clear information on what flame color is actually produced from NiCl2 besides a stock photo. This photo shows a sort of olive green while what I saw was more like emerald green. It's possible that there was some copper contamination in my case.

    I did make a photo after exposing the steel piece to the blue/oxidizing (i.e. with excess oxygen) gas stove flame used for the test. (EDIT 2020-05-01: to clarify, the marks on the photos below are from a subsequent test and did not appear due to flame exposure)

    The evaporating HCl apparently promoted rapid oxidation of the surface to a red-brown color after a few seconds of flame exposure. I tried burnishing the center of the steel piece with the same Canadian nickel coin afterwards (as seen in the photo). It's difficult to tell if I just displaced the surface oxides. From the flame test result I'd dare saying that it wasn't the case, although nothing conclusive can be written yet given the possibility of Cu ions being present as an impurity.

    Nickel should be about as hard as palladium, depending on the hardness scale used. If I indeed managed to plate Ni on mild steel like I apparently did, it makes sense to use either a visibly oxidized substrate or possibly adding abrasives in the process, assuming that the oxides removed from the surface act like such.

    EDIT 2020-05-01: for what it's worth, the steel plate re-oxidized more or less extensively from the HCl residues that haven't been neutralized. I attempted burnishing it manually again with the same Canadian Ni coin and I could definitely feel that the portion that I initially burnished before the flame test (and probably had a higher NiO content) had a somewhat slippery feel, while both the mid section burnished immediately after the flame test and the other section that was left untouched (mostly composed of Fe2O3) had a "rougher" texture.

    It's unclear at this point whether roughened Ni would be easier to burnish compared to the the same Ni surface in oxidized form, but it will probably help in general to use a substrate that forms non-passivating surface oxides that easily flake off, like steel.

    No photo yet due to poor lighting conditions.

    EDIT 2020-05-02: After more than 24 hours I repeated again the burnishing process. The steel plate was once again covered with a relatively thick, pitted red-brown oxide layer that looks slightly different from the usual rust layer formed on steel. Contrarily to the previous attempt, this time the previously Nickel-burnished sections appeared to have acquired significant roughness, probably due to a larger oxide build up. A dark, easily volatilizing red-brown dust was produced and the affected surface got cleaned by the rubbing action, turning dark gray.

    I made a comparison photo before/after, under good lighting conditions.

  • Maybe the diamond-coated nickle-substrate abrasive pads as used in the Lion experiment would be more useful for burnishing? They would certainly remove a lot of Pd in close association with the metal substrate, and we already know that diamonds have some interesting functions as regards electron emission and so on. The particular types available vary, but this is typical.…400-grit-prm400grit/47092

    Loosely in reference to this suggestion and to mine in other posts that abrasives could be used in the process, I have tried including slight amounts of silicon carbide grit (from P80 sandpaper), and—not unexpectedly—this seems to aid significantly by removing larger amounts of material from both the burnishing and burnished pieces, as well as creating deep scratches on the burnished piece (depending on applied pressure and motion type), but I'm not sure how much it is actually helping in depositing new material.

    What I think I am observing (in absence of means to confirm what is actually happening) is that circular motions seem to favor the removal of material from both pieces and create lots of dust, while linear motions create scratches and seem to favor material deposition on the substrate (especially by periodically switching to the perpendicular direction). This is possibly also true for meshes burnished the Mizuno way, so people having issues with depositing Pd on them might want to take a look at the actual technique used.

    I think part of the above could be related to the observations by magicsound in section 7 of this document on the burnishing process resembling more like scraping and taking place on the edges of deep scratches:…1vwJKh7KPL7NAYv7j13o/edit