COLD FUSION THE EASY WAY IN THREE SIMPLE STEPS

  • Let me try to specify some issues even further.


    First of all, BLP does NOT always pulse their Suncell. Yes, they often pulse it in order to try and have some control of the reaction rate and perhaps for other unknown reasons. However, on YouTube there is a video of Randell Mills giving a lecture at a university during which he speaks about the negative resistance regime (using different words but explaining the inverse voltage/current relationship and how it offers a self re-inforcing reaction rate increase) AND shows a video of a reactor producing a GIANT plasma ball while, he claims, all power is CUT OFF. That's right, a self sustaining plasma ball producing massive excess energy with no input. Of course, he also goes onto mention how he at first bragged to an investor about the huge energy output and how they vaporized tungsten components of the reactor. The investor wasn't happy at all and made a comment that a reactor that destroyed itself wasn't viable (or words to that effect).


    Secondly, I'm suggesting that we don't use a conductive metal or liquid environment in the reactor. BLP utilizes a conductive liquid metal environment in the Suncell to reduce the voltage required to get the discharge going. Otherwise, they'd have to use a higher voltage to ionize the plasma especially if they are operating at normal atmospheric pressure. Please note that Andrea Rossi had to use a powerful high voltage jolt to initially ionize the interior of the E-Cat QX before he dialed it back down and allowed the ion acoustic oscillations to self generate for several seconds before repeating the cycle (to avoid overheating).


    Finally, what I'm suggesting is to use a GASEOUS atmosphere (nothing electrolytic and no liquid metal) in combination with a higher voltage to initialize the plasma ONCE - not over and over again like Paulo Correa's Pulsed Abnormal Glow Discharge device. Once we ignite the plasma with a high voltage, then we reduce the voltage dramatically and LIMIT THE CURRENT so that we stay within the negative resistance regime and produce a steady state plasma ball. Once this occurs, we can adjust the properties of the circuit so that it continues to increase in self organization and detaches from the cathode or anode and becomes free floating.


    In theory, in my mind, although technically this may or may not be a good method, we could theoretically even use two batteries: an extremely high voltage voltaic pile and a much higher current battery along with a control box. In this mental model (which I realize is NOT practical) we use the high voltage battery to ionize the gaseous atmosphere for a brief instant and then switch over to the high current battery to sustain the plasma discharge. Somewhere between the battery and the discharge tube should be a variable resistor to make sure we do not allow the current to go so high to create a true arc discharge. Once we create the macro-scale EVO, we start "tuning" the circuit. In the simplest of my mental models, we would just add some turns to the wire leading to the discharge tube to create some resistance and probably even less capacitance (unless we made that segment of wire really wide to create greater capacitance between turns in the solenoid). We wouldn't be seeking to quench the discharge and then re-trigger it again like with the PAGD. Instead, we adjust it just enough to make the fireball detach from the electrode and make the ion acoustic oscillations on the oscilloscope increase in amplitude. If this is done in a calorimeter, we should be able to determine pretty quickly the most optimal settings to produce excess heat.


    I hope this clarifies my views somewhat.

  • I also want to mention that if a group builds such a device and gets the parameters correct, they should be able to dial back the input current tremendously while the macro-EVO continues to produce excess energy, sustain itself, and produce ion acoustic oscillations. Brilliant Light Power was able to do this with their self sustaining plasma ball in a Suncell - the video of Randell Mills speaking about this is on YouTube. At the demo of the QX, after the initial high voltage spark Rossi the input was reduced down to almost nothing allowing for ultra-high COPs because the plasma ball became 99%+ self sustaining. That's the whole key here in my opinion: create the macro-EVO, feed it the proper fuel mixture, tune it to the point it becomes "alive", and then let it do it's own thing!

  • To hear Randell Mills talk about the self sustaining plasma ball that exists even after the input has been cut off, start listening around 59:00 minutes. He eventually shows the plasma ball and states that at that moment all input power has been cut off.


    Please realize that you do NOT need liquid metal or a massive reactor to generate this phenomena. You can do so in a pure plasma based system in the negative resistance regime that has an optimum fuel mixture and is tuned to maximize the self organization of the macro-EVO. The result would be excess energy in the forms of heat, light, and electrical output and all the other signatures of LENR reactions. I predict that depending on the fuels you utilized you could see a huge number of transmutations.


  • With the spark gap oscillator you also apply DC and depending on the characteristics of the circuit and the spark gap it automatically produces oscillations in the form of discharges at a rate which can go up tens-hundred kilohertz or more.


    Mills SUNCELL used at most a frequency of 10. Going higher f is difficult because of recharging or switching high currents under load.


    As said there is only one "symmetric" plasma regime that works for LENR. A one directional flux of ions is of no help it leads to classic cathode/anode erosive impact LENR. You need to find a steady state between +/- ion flux that finally generates the spiral shaped swirl flow of LENR.


    See picture from SUNCELL SS mode. Left you see the spiral of the heavier ions right the spiral of lighter ones (mostly electrons). The flux expands in the left middle as the sum of the charge there is around 0. The bright spots are from starting fusion at begin/end of the magnetic dominated 3 rotation flux zone.


  • This seems higher than 10 Hz (reaction starts at 0:22).


    But with much less current as it looks like - as expected. And no SSM of course - something Mills physics does not cover...


    The discharge time of the old capacitors was 1,5ms. May be with newer super-caps he can go to somewhat higher frequencies. But just do the calculations to get 10'000 amps you have to load a similar amount. Not simple cabling...and.. if the resistance of the capacitor is not small enough you blow it up very fast even if you multiplex e.g. 6 capacitor banks.

  • Wyttenbach

    Tens–hundreds of kHz as I've previously written wasn't certainly going to be with 10000A discharges. I meant that those frequencies can be easily achieved with that system, which made sense in the context of deliberately limiting current as proposed in the thread. BLP came later in the discussion as I remarked that their approach seems to be going in the opposite direction with what could be defined as large sparks.



    To hear Randell Mills talk about the self sustaining plasma ball that exists even after the input has been cut off, start listening around 59:00 minutes. He eventually shows the plasma ball and states that at that moment all input power has been cut off.


    Mills does mention about self-sustaining plasma, but not plasma balls, at least at about the indicated time. What's visible there is intense light saturating the camera looking at the reaction through a round viewport.



    [58:55] So, I'm gonna play a video here. I wish it had some sound, cause it kind of sounds really cool. But nonetheless... so I'm going to explain.


    So we have here electromagnetic pump on one side and on the other side; these are the molten silver reservoirs. We're looking down to the dome and... so we have a viewport there... It's in a vacuum chamber and then we have a window where we can look into the cell.


    So we're looking down into the cell and what we're going to do here is going to turn the pumping power up and then we're going to gradually turn on the ignition; and then you'll see that when these two streams hit we'll get electrical contact, let's put ignition on and then nothing should happen, but what you're going to see it's going to make a great plasma.


    And then through the video at different points we'll turn it off and you'll see that it persists, and then by the end we'll turn it off and you can't tell the difference whether it has power into it or not, because it's in auto [?] mode.


    No one has ever created a plasma that self-sustains itself. And you'll see that. And this is at atmospheric pressure, which is insane, to have a plasma of this type at that high pressures.


    So that's going to go on and then it'll get so hot that we're vaporizing away the silver because it can out of the top of the dome, and then the water line start popping or whatever because power it's getting to high and it's kind the end of it, so…

  • I took the time of transcribing some excerpts from [relatively] recent BLP presentations where Randell Mills explains his choice of an arc plasma for his SunCell reactors. I see no indications that he's limiting current, quite the opposite actually.


    * * *


    Brilliant Light Power's December 6th, 2016 Washington, DC Roadshow


    [0:38:51] […] The acceptor would have to become ionized in the reaction, would have to be an ionization reaction. And in the ionization reaction you're going to build up electric charge, and that's limited: that's like when you're sliding your feet across, walking across the rug in the winter and you touch your filing cabinet and you shock your finger, a snap.


    [0:39:10] I mean, theoretically you could keep charging up indefinitely and then your arm will like fry up like it got hit by lightning. The reason it doesn't happen is because there's more and more electrons accumulated in the body and it becomes higher energy and it becomes higher charge and it stops the reaction.


    [0:39:26] Similarly these electrons build up and it stops that forward reaction. So the idea is to use a state of matter called the arc plasma state whereby the reaction actually increases the higher the current that goes through the reaction. So you drive a current through it. Typically the more current you drive, the more energy: that's Ohm's law, V=IR. Joules * Coulomb is higher the higher the current; this is the opposite.


    [0:39:53] The energy per charge actually drops the higher the current, and it recombines these electrons and ions and the reaction rate becomes explosive. Like that. […]


    * * *


    Brilliant Light Power's December 16th, 2016 London, UK Roadshow


    [0:52:41] […] In this case too, it changes the energy levels. So there's a way of actually making use of that to the advantage of making the reaction go to high kinetics, and that is: in a typical case the more charge, the more energy. That is, like if you look at a toaster for example. V = IR, Ohm's law: the more current, the more voltage it takes to drive that current to the toaster, and voltage is Joules * Coulomb, that's energy per charge.


    [0:53:13] For something called the arc plasma state it actually is the opposite: the higher the current, the lower the voltage. The lower the Joules per Coulomb energy per charge. So you get like a positive feedback. So when we apply those conditions to the reaction… boom: massive explosive kinetics. Not percussion wave explosion, but light, just a blast of light […]


    * * *


    Brilliant Light Power's February 28th, 2017 Irvine, CA Roadshow


    [0:45:27] […] So, the breakthrough for this, this transformation of [..] the company occurred around the Fall of 2013, where I was looking at the theory again and one of the things I was perplexed is if the electron is attracted to the proton and you have a mechanism for making that drop to a lower state, which releases a lot of energy—like 200 times the energy of burning hydrogen—the rate should be very high.


    [0:45:48] So what's impeding it? And you know someone argued "if that were true then all the hydrogen in the Universe would pretty much be in this state". Well that is true. If you look at dark matter as the hydrogen in his hydrino state and essentially all the hydrogen in the Universe is in fact in that state. So you look at the Universe and said "everything you can see" it's a little tiny sliver of what's out there, and what's out there is hydrino form of hydrogen.


    [0:46:25] So, what's holding this reaction back? And if you look at it you have an energy transfer from the hydrogen atom to an acceptor, and it's a big amount of energy, it's more energy than the ionization energy of any known molecule or atom. So it has to be an ionization energy reaction in order to accept this energy from the hydrogen, so it has to be a resonant ionization. So then you're gonna have ions and the ions actually impede the rate of reaction: the more ions you get, the more space charge, the more repulsion—if you wanna think that way—it raises the energy level of everything so there's no longer a match.


    [0:47:04] So, what occurs in the SunCell is that we have a mechanism of dissipating those charge species and recombine them very quickly, so we have extremely high current. It's called an arc plasma state. Arc plasma state actually lowers the energy the higher the current. Opposite of Ohm's law—like a toaster: if you increase the current, voltage has to increase. That's the Joules per Coulomb, energy per charge—in this case actually it gets lower, so you get positive feedback. Lightnings are an example of arc plasma and actually the higher the current, the lower the voltage and accelerates the process.


    [0:47:44] This actually is a positive feedback reaction, so when we did this, created that kind of condition with something that can provide the hydrogen and the catalyst… boom! Just like explosive power […]


    * * *


    Dr. Mills Fresno State lecture (Mar 20, 2017)


    [0:43:11] […] What's impeding the kinetics of this that's not happening very very fast and making a lot of power? That's one thing to have energy if you're [?] 200 times the energy burning, but it's another thing to get the power so you going to actually get this reaction rate high enough so you can get some useful power out of it.


    [0:43:27] So, it turns out the issue was that once the energy was transferred from the hydrogen atom to this energy acceptor it creates electrons, free electrons and ions, and that creates a space charge that impedes that forward reaction. So we built a device that would put an arc plasma on it; that is something that higher the current, the lower the voltage, the lower the Joules per Coulomb and is lower the energy and it gave a positive feedback on the reaction. And voila! Explosive kinetics.

  • Mills does mention about self-sustaining plasma, but not plasma balls, at least at about the indicated time. What's visible there is intense light saturating the camera looking at the reaction through a round viewport.


    If you go through the video he talks about it again. He may not use the term plasma ball, but that's exactly what's in his reactor. Why? Because if you are utilizing the negative resistance regime, then by definition you will be producing a complex space charge configuration. It's the way the negative resistance works. At the core of that light filled reactor would have been a plasma ball producing massive excess energy.

  • I took the time of transcribing some excerpts from [relatively] recent BLP presentations where Randell Mills explains his choice of an arc plasma for his SunCell reactors. I see no indications that he's limiting current, quite the opposite actually.


    He has spelled it out in various videos, papers and postings - some of which were lost when he removed his Yahoo group - that it's the negative resistance phenomena that allows the massive rate increase. It's in at least a couple of his patents as well. The issue is that it's extremely easy to slip from the negative resistance regime to the arc discharge. I wouldn't doubt for a moment that in his PULSED systems he allows the current to go high enough to go through the negative resistance regime and to a true arc discharge. Or, he could have utilized some sort of current limiting system, I don't know. But a true arc discharge isn't what allows for the self limiting reactions (with positive resistance such as in his previous systems that operated in a glow discharge regime with positive resistance) to turn into self re-inforcing. It's the specific negative resistance regime that allows that.


    Now, let's consider his self sustaining system that produced a self sustaining plasma ball which produced so much light it saturated the camera. Obviously, the current was limited because it was claimed to be off. What I'm suggesting replicators do is to limit the current so as NOT to create a true arc discharge with positive resistance. Then, if they create a plasma ball that starts producing excess energy, try to dial back the input even further so that it becomes near self sustaining. This is what happened at Stockholm with Andrea Rossi's QX. After the initial high voltage spark to ionize the plasma, he reduced the input power and the system was almost self sustaining.

  • https://patents.google.com/pat…%22negative+resistance%22


    The power supply may have a maximum current limit that maintains the hydrino reaction rate at a desired rate. In an embodiment, the high current is variable to control the hydrino-produced power to provide variable power output. The high current limit controlled by the power supply may be in the range of at least one of about 1 kA to 100 kA, 2 kA to 50 kA, and 10 kA to 30 kA, The arc plasma may have a negative resistance comprising a decreasing voltage behavior with increasing current.


    https://patents.google.com/pat…%22negative+resistance%22


    The power supply may have a maximum current limit that maintains the hydrino reaction rate at a desired rate. In an embodiment, the high current is variable to control the hydrino-produced power to provide variable power output. The high current limit controlled by the power supply may be in the range of at least one of about 1 kA to 100 kA, 2 kA to 50 kA, and 10 kA to 30 kA. The arc plasma may have a negative resistance comprising a decreasing voltage behavior with increasing current. The plasma arc cell power circuit may comprise a form of positive impedance such as an electrical ballast to establish a stable current at a desired level.


    https://patents.google.com/pat…%22negative+resistance%22


    The power supply may have a maximum current limit that maintains the hydrino reaction rate at a desired rate. In an embodiment, the high current is variable to control the hydrino-produced power to provide variable power output. The high current limit controlled by the power supply may be in the range of at least one of about ]. kA to 100 kA, 2 kA to 50 kA, and 10 LA to 30 k . The arc plasma may have a negative resistance comprising a decreasing voltage behavior with increasing current. The plasma arc cell power circuit may comprise a form of positive impedance such as an electrical ballast to establish a stable current at a desired level.

  • Yes, arc plasmas have negative [differential] resistance. That's the term for what he explains in the excerpts I posted earlier, this one below being an example:


    Quote

    [0:47:04] So, what occurs in the SunCell is that we have a mechanism of dissipating those charge species and recombine them very quickly, so we have extremely high current. It's called an arc plasma state. Arc plasma state actually lowers the energy the higher the current. Opposite of Ohm's law—like a toaster: if you increase the current, voltage has to increase. That's the Joules per Coulomb, energy per charge—in this case actually it gets lower, so you get positive feedback. Lightnings are an example of arc plasma and actually the higher the current, the lower the voltage and accelerates the process.



    The issue is that it's extremely easy to slip from the negative resistance regime to the arc discharge.


    Arc discharges do usually exhibit negative resistance. You seem to have confused ideas on this regard.


    But a true arc discharge isn't what allows for the self limiting reactions (with positive resistance such as in his previous systems that operated in a glow discharge regime with positive resistance) to turn into self re-inforcing. It's the specific negative resistance regime that allows that.


    This is not what Randell Mills is saying.

  • Randell Mills was speaking about the importance of the negative resistance regime in his Yahoo group until he removed it. The negative resistance regime - not the arc discharge regime - is the key to the rate enhancement in the Suncell. And if you are in the negative resistance regime there will be definition a complex space charge configuration or plasma ball.




    http://www.internationalskepti…showthread.php?p=12544929


    Quote

    Originally Posted by optiongeek View Post

    The reason why Mills has taken so long to find a commercially viable design comes down to how electrodynamics of plasma can be designed to support the hydrino reaction. It was only in late 2013 that Mills discovered that a characteristic of arc plasmas called Negative Differential Resistance was an important pre-condition for sustaining the reaction. The hydrino reaction is ionizing, meaning that the HOH catalyst will ordinarily lose its outer electrons. This generates additional current in the plasma. If the plasma has a positive resistance, then increasing the current raises the voltage potential and therefore is unfavorable to the formation of subsequent hydrino reactions. However, if you create a NDR in the plasma (by supplying high current, in the neighborhood of 10k amps), then consider what happens to the voltage as the ionization-generated current is applied. Per Ohm's law, the increased current causes the voltage to drop! Instead of a negative feedback loop, there is now a positive feedback loop supporting the formation of hydrinos. Under an NDR-containing arc plasma, the hydrino reaction becomes explosive. Before 2013/2014, none of Mills' designs could be commercialized because they were inherently rate limiting.


    Since 2014, Mills' engineering efforts have been focused on containing and moderating arc plasma-based reactions involving low-voltage, high-current mixed with H2 gas fuel and trace amounts of HOH catalyst.



    http://www.internationalskepti…p=12545414&postcount=3312


    Quote

    Originally Posted by jsfisher View Post
    Is that now necessary? Perhaps Mills has written about this new requirement somewhere. Does this also mean all the previous occasions where Mills has proudly proclaimed the successful generation of hydrinos he was mistaken because he didn't have 10,000 amps flowing through the plasma?




    Please see this recent post. The reaction kinetics are unfavorable (i.e. rate limited) unless there is a Negative Differential Resistance. When you supply high current, you get NDR and the feedback changes from negative to positive. The hydrino reaction can exist without it, but the reaction rate isn't commercially viable.



  • True arc discharges do not have negative resistance! They have VERY LOW positive resistance! Look at the curves on the charts that have been posted to this forum! He may have used the term arc discharge without specifying the nuance that on the way to a true arc discharge you will go through the negative resistance regime. That's why the negative resistance regime is engineered out of so many devices! It's why ballasts are used in some types of modern lighting. Once you enter the negative resistance regime it's easy to go straight to an arc discharge.


    I know what Randell Mills has said and means because I've done my research.

  • Please look at the following chart. A true arc discharge with a POSITIVE resistance does not exist until point J. The regime in which BLP and Paulo Correa typically operate to achieve a negative resistance is the region I through J which exhibits negative resistance. This is a VERY unique range because by definition when you are in this range you will produce a complex space space charge configuration or macro-EVO. If you pulse your system transiently you will only create one for a brief period of time. If you current limit your device (like the SAFIRE Project has admitted to doing) you can stay within the range of I and J to produce a macro-EVO that will continue to exist.


    The most important lesson here is that the range from I to J is NOT a true arc discharge. It has negative resistance.



    1280px-Glow_discharge_current-voltage_curve_English.svg.png

  • That graph won't change the fact that the negative differential resistance is an unavoidable characteristic of all electrical arcs in the real world: a ballast/some form of circuit impedance is always needed when dealing with them in order to prevent current from increasing in a positive feedback loop, eventually causing component failure.


    With this I call myself out of the discussion. To make it clearer, I reject your explanation.

  • Quote

    BLP tests usually involve impulsively dumping large amounts of currents at low voltage—peaking thousands of amperes—into their gas-metal (or gas) mixtures in what is fundamentally a series of very large brief sparks. You instead are proposing a sort of current-limited arc discharge.


    The usage of low voltage high current regime has good practical both theoretical reasons. Every voltage drop on discharge is source of heat dissipation and it thus decreases potential overunity yield. Mills hydrino theory is based on subquantum states, it has therefore no reason to excite hydrogen atoms to very high energy values with high voltage. In addition low electric intensity would favour non-radiation energy transition of spherical orbitals, whereas high voltage would deform them and force them to radiate energy wastefully.


    Quote

    True arc discharges do not have negative resistance! They have VERY LOW positive resistance! ... true arc discharge you will go through the negative resistance regime...Once you enter the negative resistance regime it's easy to go straight to an arc discharge.


    These are mutually contradicting claims, don't you think? Of course that true arc discharges have negative differential resistance, which is why ballast reactance is needed for their stabilization.

  • Yes, I agree that an electrical arc does have a brief period of time during which there is a negative resistance but then it shifts to positive resistance when it is a "true" arc discharge. I know all about the use of ballasts to prevent arc discharges. I worked in a location where they were always having to be replaced.


    What exactly are you rejecting?