Media/News/Video Library-No discussions please

  • We have known about fusion powering the sun since Hans Bethe explained it in 1939.

    To much garbage posts inside news should be avoided. When we can 100% exclude one fusion reaction for the sun then its the Bethe reaction! Fusion research just is money for friends from friends = pillage of the dumb people we also see here.

  • Hora had some nice papers a while ago about how non-thermal laser-driven H-B fusion could maybe work. It is a neat idea, which looks possible but very unproven. As always with these things you don't know it will be feasible till you have a detailed proof of concept. The work so far is not enough to convince me of that.

    It’s been an exciting last 12 months of research, experiments and collaborations for HB11 Energy – a year of shared goals, mutual support and achieving great things together. May 2024 be our year for major breakthroughs!

    From their (new) website. I certainly hope they have a major breakthrough but it is a long shot. In any case they are doing experiments now so will have more data showing us whether this idea can work or not.

    They got 22 million to try things https://www.businessnewsaustra…lear-fusion-industry.html

    Recent editorial which is Hora making the case he has been making since 2017

    Editorial: Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) Hydrogen–Boron Fusion
    Recently, in a series of publications it has been suggested that for the HB 11 case we do not need to reach a local thermal equilibrium (LTE) at such a high…


    Yes, controlled fusion for commercial applications has been a promise at least half of my life.

    Last year I visited a lecture of a Duch professor who’s team attributed to one of the numerous challenges ITER encounters. He said: “ITER will never produce more energy than it consumes, maybe a commercial next generation tokamak does this within the coming 25 years”.

    But within that time humanity will probably suffer from exhaustion of our fossil energy sources. If nothing happens that will stop the economic motor and it will lead to chaos. Solar and wind will never be enough to replace the fossil fuels. The plan of making nuclear fusion our next energy source is a deadly plan for humanity and is the mistake of many nuclear scientists that underestimated the complexity.

    What they instead should have been done is developing the thorium reactor. I’m sure it would have been in operation by now. There is enough thorium for at least 500 years if all the energy in the world consumed for every process needing energy! Natural thorium does not require enrichment. All thorium can be used for energy generation. We missed a chance to survive. Let’s hope LENR will bring us the escape.

  • What they instead should have been done is developing the thorium reactor.

    Or the fast breeder or any for ever lasting crap reaction... Or simply said: Fission is nuts.

    This branch (fission and hot fusion) of science is death cult science from people that never did master physics despite a master in physics. The half way useful paths are Lithium fusion and of course CF.

    We would need about 5 millions for a working CF reaction, may be less. Where working mean a product could be sold. But as long as the EU thinks that people that never did master physics despite a master in physics are the right target you can wait for ever.

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  • Magnetic monopoles appear in haematite

    23 Feb 2024 Isabelle Dumé Artist's illustration of magnetic monopoles in haematite, showing pink field lines emerging from a lattice of particlesAn illustration of magnetic monopoles in haematite. (Courtesy: Ella Maru Studio)

    Physicists at the universities of Oxford and Cambridge in the UK have spotted signatures of magnetic monopoles and other unusual magnetic structures in haematite, a naturally occurring antiferromagnetic iron oxide material. The structures, which the researchers discovered using quantum sensing measurements, could form the basis for novel devices such as racetrack memories and super-fast, energy-efficient neuromorphic computing.

    An ordinary bar magnet consists of a north and a south pole. Slice it in two, and each of the resulting halves – no matter how small – will also have two poles. Indeed, the bipolar nature of magnetism is so fundamental that it crops up in Maxwell’s equations, which imply that although isolated positive and negative electric charges exist, isolated magnetic charges cannot.

    During the quantum revolution of the 1920s and 1930s, some physicists began to speculate that this principle of classical electromagnetism might need revising. In 1931 Paul Dirac became the first to predict that magnetic monopoles – elementary particles that act as isolated magnetic north and south poles and are the magnetic analogues of electric charges – could exist. Although magnetic monopoles of the type Dirac envisaged have never been seen as free particles, exotic materials known as spin ices have since been found to host collective states that mimic them.

    Swirling patterns of magnetic charges

    A team of researchers led by Mete Atatüre, the head of Cambridge’s Cavendish Laboratory, has now observed a similar “emergent” type of magnetic monopole in haematite. These monopoles are collective states of many swirling spins (inherent angular momenta of electrons) that, together, act like a localized stable particle with a magnetic field emanating from it. “These ‘antiferromagnetic whirls’ (which are called merons, antimerons and bimerons) in haematite are associated with ‘emergent magnetic monopoles’,” explains the team’s co-leader Paolo Radaelli, a physicist at Oxford. “These whirls give away their location and we are able to study their behaviour with diamond quantum magnetometry and other scanning techniques.”

    In diamond quantum magnetometry, a single spin in a tiny needle made of diamond is used to precisely and non-invasively measure the magnetic field on the surface of a material. “Quantum magnetometry can sense very tiny magnetic fields,” Atatüre explains. “Hence, it is ideally suited to map the magnetic order in antiferromagnets, a special class of magnetic materials in which the local magnetization nearly cancels out.”

    A new approach pays off

    The researchers, who report their work in Nature Materials, spotted several unusual magnetic structures in haematite using this technique, including two-dimensional monopoles, dipoles and quadrupoles. This is the first time a two-dimensional monopole has been observed in a naturally occurring magnet, they say. Radaelli adds that the team was not expecting to see much because antiferromagnetic spin textures were considered elusive and only observable using complex X-ray techniques.

    “We sent our samples to Mete and colleagues in Cambridge without knowing exactly what to expect,” he says. “I recall discussing this and thinking that we would see nothing. When the images from Cambridge started pouring in, we debated different interpretations until quantitative simulations revealed the microscopic origin of the signal.”

    It was only at this point that the team understood the monopolar nature of the observed magnetic structure and made the connection with examples of monopoles in the scientific literature, he tells Physics World.

    Readout and classification

    As for applications, team member Hariom Jani, a postdoctoral fellow at Oxford and the first author of the study, suggests the newly observed monopoles could serve as indicators for other unusual effects. “The interconnection between the magnetic charges, which are the sources/sinks of tiny fields, and the winding sense of the antiferromagnetic whirls is quite useful because it opens up an easy pathway to read out and classify exotic antiferromagnetic states,” he says.

    Chiral crystals

    Magnetic monopoles found lurking in topological chiral crystals

    His Cambridge colleague, PhD student Anthony Tan, agrees. “Our work highlights the potential of diamond quantum magnetometry to uncover and investigate hidden magnetic phenomena in quantum materials, which could help pioneer new fields of study in this area,” he says.

    The team’s ultimate goal, Radaelli says, is to construct real-world devices for next-generation computing that make use of these antiferromagnetic whirls. “We are working in parallel on two separate concepts: one based on emulating biological neurons; and the other on so-called racetracks, that is, nanoscopic ‘highways’ for the whirls,” he says. Constructing such devices will require electrical contacts, leads and transducers to be fabricated at the nanoscale, he adds: “We anticipate that multi-probe scanning techniques, such as diamond quantum magnetometry, will enable us to fast-track this work.”

  • it was the postulate of the very former French Georges Lochak to explain notably the Tchernobyl even.

    A kind of ponctual particles could have been generated ( no EVO pleeeaase)

    Very difficult to our mortals to imagine an one way particle flux when all the day we have playing with so many classic bi directions magnetic devices.


    About the disaster in Japan Some remarks about the nuclear industry

    The first point is that the disaster is a natural one, caused by gigantic
    Human errors (forecasting, safety and reaction failures) certainly
    exist, but they are not essential. What is essential is nature.
    But since some of the most serious consequences are nuclear in
    nature, we are entitled to take this opportunity to make a few comments
    about the nuclear industry, not only in Japan but in all countries,
    including France, which occupies a place of choice in this field that is a
    legitimate source of national pride.
    The main point, to which we will return at length, is that the nuclear
    industry is based on the idea of Joliot, Halban and Ko- warsky, to use
    the chain disintegration of uranium (which they themselves
    This idea dates back to 1938 - almost 70 years ago - (in a sealed
    envelope to the Académie) and is still the basis of all reactors, including
    the latest EPR.
    So we are entitled to wonder whether this model is outdated, even
    though its merits are immense: without it, we would have no nuclear
    energy. But it is not without its drawbacks, the main one being that
    current slow neutron reactors are based on the decay o f a rare isotope
    o f uranium: uranium 235, which accounts for only 0.7% of natural
    uranium, most of which, the isotope 238, is lost in waste.

    The revolutionary idea in this field was the fast neutron reactor,
    known as the "breeder reactor", essentially t h e wo r k of a great

    Georges Vendryès. This reactor uses uranium 238, increasing the yield of
    natural uranium by a hundredfold.
    In 1957, I was working in Moscow at the United Institute for Nuclear
    Research in Dubna and I remember the visit of Francis Perrin, High
    Commissioner for Atomic Energy, who spoke enthusiastically at the
    French Embassy about research that was still in its early stages.
    The result was a f u ll -s c a l e model, Superphé-nix, abandoned by
    governments overwhelmed by environmentalists who (to add insult to
    injury) were focusing on an accident that had nothing to do with nuclear
    power: a sodium leak in the cooling system, which was a matter of
    ordinary chemistry.
    I would point out that this technology is being developed in Japan, but
    in fact throughout the world, the technology in view, for the moment,
    remains the original, slow neutron technology.
    And it should be added that these reactors h a v e other disadvantages
    besides the scarcity of uranium 235: there is the price of uranium in
    general and the high level of radioactivity inside the reactor, which
    appears in the waste, some of which is very dangerous, and which escapes
    in the event of a disaster, as at Chernobyl and Fukushima.
    This raises the question of whether it would be possible to create a
    new type of reactor.
    But it's not the kind of question you answer by sitting at your desk and
    thinking hard: you'd have time to die. Nor is it the subject of a major
    project (we'll come back to that later) which is the form towards which
    science has tilted sharply since the Great World War. What does this
    Until then, science had been the product of eminent individuals who
    sailed freely along the great questions, often born of singular facts: "small
    facts," said Paul Valéry, "overturn the explanation of great facts".
    This research cost nothing, and was often carried out by 'amateurs'
    like Faraday or Einstein, or by professors outside their official activity
    (Louis de Broglie, talking to me about his professorship, said: "I had to
    earn a living"). As for Max Planck, he was seen as an unimaginative
    professor and was left in peace to his great delight.

    It's these people and others - talented but of lesser stature - who have made
    it all possible.

    About the disaster in Japan . . 189
    who created the science of the past and launched the great ideas we know
    and use today.
    It was in the middle of the 20th century that science took on an
    entirely new form, that of the "grand project", the first and greatest of
    which was the construction of the atomic bomb in the United States
    during the 39-45 war, because it was the first time that a group of
    specialists (some of them eminent) supported by the greatest industrial
    power of the time, the USA, had been brought together for a single
    "This was possible because the enemy had so many great physicists at
    their disposal.
    I was young, in occupied France, and I can attest that it was a "good
    This gave rise to American-style science, which is no longer about the
    big questions but about the big projects, bringing together all t h e
    knowledge acquired in a given field to perfect it and develop it with a
    view to applications.
    The fashion for major projects has spread and created the world we
    live in, teeming with practical ideas and in which the imagination seems to
    have moved from the abstract to the concrete, from the general to the particular.
    Does this mean that fundamental science is dead?
    No, but it too has changed form and subject. The Big Bang is no
    longer physics, but a metaphysical dream, or 'string theory', which has
    only ever found a few mathematical results and none in physics.
    Above all, we are seeing major fundamental science projects such as
    ITER, which aims to develop nuclear fusion energy, i.e. to harness the
    energy of the H-bomb. This is a grandiose project, and a CLI-ITER leaflet
    published in February 2011 acknowledges that one of its great merits is
    that it will create jobs! (the national workshops also created jobs). The
    leaflet I have in my hand talks almost exclusively about surveys of the
    public (who hear nothing about them), safety (thousands of pages) and
    risks of all kinds (all dispelled!). There's just one scientific paragraph
    where they don't say what they're going to do; they just explain the
    difference between fission and fusion.

    In reality, the problem of fusion has been studied for 60 years, starting
    with an idea that was thought to be brilliant, the Tokamak, but which
    didn't work and of which ITER is a grandiose version.
    The idea for the tokamak came from two great Russian physicists,
    Tamm and Sakharov, and was realised by Kadamtsev, who said to his
    close assistant, Urutskoiev, with whom I work: "You know, it will never
    work", and they abandoned it. When you embark on a project, the least
    you can do is to be able to question it, but that's impossible if the project
    is a one-off, on a single basis accepted once and for all, with huge
    finances and an army of researchers. At Kadamtsev, there must have been
    dozens of them.
    The strength of today's science, when it comes to applications, clearly
    lies in its large institutes, its many researchers and its equipment.
    But this requires organisation, bureaucracy and, above all, a single
    way of thinking that is overseen by the sacrosanct commissions of
    specialists, as my illustrious master Louis de Broglie (winner of the Nobel
    Prize in Physics) said: "If the ideas of the brilliant scientists who
    promoted modern science had been submitted to commissions of
    specialists, they would undoubtedly have seemed ex- travagant and would
    have been rejected for the very reason of their originality and depth".
    There is no question of abandoning the science of projects, because in
    one form or another, with its shortcomings and abuses, we live from it
    and it is normal that it mobilises a lot of people and resources. But we
    need to give back to those who are passionate about the science of
    questions the freedom of thought and the very limited resources
    (compared with major projects) that they need.
    For it is this science that is the salt of the earth and sows the seeds of
    the future.
    It has to be said that the science of questions begins when you don't
    really know what you're talking about, or whether what you're saying is
    true. "Science and the Hypothesis" is Henri Poincaré's most famous book.
    Science and the Hypothesis" is Henri Poincaré's most famous book.
    Science must once again become one of humanity's great myths, a
    myth for the future, not a luxury of the past.
    When I was 7, my father gave me two Larousse books: "Le ciel"
    (astronomy) and "La science, ses progrès et ses applications" (science
    comes first) and took me to the Palais de la Découverte.

    (opened the same year, 1937), which was a source of wonder for me, and
    from which my vocation and that of many others, I know, was born.
    This brings us back to the question of perhaps modifying the principle
    of nuclear reactors, which I said was neither a research subject from
    which there would be no w a y out, nor a vast possible project.
    Because new ideas are largely born of chance, of an encounter, of an
    unforeseen event.
    Heraclitus said: "If you don't watch out for the unexpected, you'll
    never know the truth".
    That's why Néel (winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics) used to say:
    "I'd rather clear virgin land than cultivate a priest's garden", and
    Heisenberg (also a Nobel Prize winner), when faced with a new result,
    often had the most flattering words to say: "It raises an important
    This is how the question of a possible new type of reactor came up
    in the group I lead (as a theoretician) with my Russian friend
    Urutskoiev (as an experimenter).
    As is often the case, it was a chance meeting on a subject that had no
    apparent connection with what we're talking about here.
    In 1956, I discovered a strange and incomprehensible formula in
    Dirac's quantum theory of the electron.
    After twenty-five years in a drawer, but revised every year, in 1981
    this formula appeared to me as that of a magnetic monopole whose
    existence is parallel to that of the electron. And I constructed a whole
    theory with experimental predictions for this new particle.
    Note that a monopole is an isolated magnetic charge (like an electric
    charge), whereas the + or - poles of a magnet are inseparable: if you
    cut the magnet, you get two others with the poles joined again.
    Nobody wanted my monopole (except de Broglie and Néel) because
    everyone was waiting for a very heavy monopole that we never managed
    to see.
    A few years went by and then came the Chernobyl disaster in 1986.
    A Russian physicist who was unknown to me, Leonid Urutskoiev,
    stayed on for ten years, heading a team from the Kurchatov Institute in
    Moscow, to elucidate the various causes of the disaster.

    At the same time, another team left under the direct influence of the
    political authorities.
    It fulfilled the desires of any political authority in such a case: to find
    human causes and those responsible to throw to the media.
    Meanwhile, Urutskoiev and his colleagues were amassing astonishing
    observations: the reactor core had not melted (far from it!), the uranium
    rods were piled up broken at the bottom of the reactor. The paint on the
    inside walls had remained intact, proving that the t e m p e r a t u r e had
    not exceeded 300 degrees.
    The graphite rods, supposedly burnt and responsible for the glow
    above the reactor, were all there, except f o r a few.
    On the other hand, 10 tonnes of aluminium (a metal not used in the
    construction) and smaller quantities of various chemical elements, also
    originally absent, were found. Evidence of unusual transmutations.
    Uranium rods were enriched to 20% when the reactor was dying a n d
    should have been at 1.1%. The reactor cover, made of 2,500 tonnes of
    concrete, was lifted and slid, intact, from edge to edge against the reactor.
    Unlike the sensational films that show him blown to bits.
    If the cover had been lifted by internal pressure, the reactor would have
    exploded completely.
    However, the concrete wall of the reactor was intact. Lastly, in an
    engine r o o m , the reactor water pipe ran parallel to a high-voltage
    electrical pipe, which ran onto the water p i p e .
    What force attracted her?
    Russian physicists hypothesised that the water pipe was carrying
    magnetic monopoles at the time of the explosion.
    Transmutations, plus this phenomenon, led them to the hypothesis that
    monopoles had played an important role in the Chernobyl disaster.
    Urutskoiev then discovered my theoretical work and we have been
    working together ever since

    The Russians are working on this in several laboratories (Moscow,
    Dubna, Kiev, Kazan, etc.).
    Hundreds of experiments confirm the existence of these monopoles.
    The greatest hopes are currently pinned on nuclear physics.
    Without going into further detail or explanation, let's just say that
    monopoles are endowed with weak interactions. These are the same as in
    beta radioactivity (which emits electrons). Now, the energy of nuclear
    reactors belongs to strong interactions; but we know that these can be
    governed by weak interactions: this is what we know in astrophysics.
    Hence the idea that a new type of nuclear reactor could be controlled
    by beams of magnetic monopoles.
    These reactors could then draw their energy not from heavy metals
    like uranium, but from light metals like iron.
    If this proved to be true, it would revolutionise the problem of
    radioactivity and waste, which would cease to be dangerous because it is
    not radioactive.
    Imagine the scientific, industrial and political revolution! The
    Russians are already working on it.
    Are we right? Are we wrong? The future will tell. But this is true
    science, the kind that must try everything, as Henri Poincaré used to say.
    May his voice be heard in his own country

  • Human errors (forecasting, safety and reaction failures) certainly
    exist, but they are not essential.

    The main Fukushima disaster was caused by the greed of tepco owners. Just to remind you: The blow off the outer hull was the critical = most deadly event.

    Why did it happen at all?

    On the roof of each building there is a valve you can manually open to release excess Hydrogen that internally flows to the most top location. After several days the untrained monkeys were consulted by the last knowledgeable one that ordered a team up onto the roof.

    Now guess what happened?

    This valve must be opened at least once a years during the routine training of the reactor team. So the question is:

    Why did they hire untrained monkeys and did not invest in any training or simply:: The valve was never moved for 40 years....

    Result:: Pressure corrosion same as natural welding. There was no chance to open it certainly not at 5 minutes before 12 o'clock.

    What would a Swiss do? Ask his army friend for some explosives (same outcomes as seen...) or a hole drilling tool with utmost care for the last 2mm....

    Irony of the story: At the moment of the Fukushima II reactor failure a German team was onsite (Took handy films...) from a company that sells mandatory hydrogen separators. Mandatory ($$$$$$$) in the rest of the cultivated world....Not in Japan

  • Yes, fully agree about Fuku , it was in the same way as TMI.

    Now some scientists postulated about a magnetic monopole involvement at Tchernobyl and AZT in France .

    Personally, i just completed the file that shared Alan about the magnetic monopole existence.

    So, i have absolutely no idea about the relevance of that , and i try to only fill sometimes interesting infos here, good or bad..

  • Why did they hire untrained monkeys and did not invest in any training or simply:: The valve was never moved for 40 years....

    Result:: Pressure corrosion same as natural welding. There was no chance to open it certainly not at 5 minutes before 12 o'clock.

    What would a Swiss do? Ask his army friend for some explosives (same outcomes as seen...) or a hole drilling tool with utmost care for the last 2mm..

    I was concerned about this at the time, and noticed that the roof panels were held on by bolts as is common with the type of building used. I emailed a Mitsubishi engineer I knew had volunteered to go there to help saying they should just remove one or two roof panels to vent the H2. It never happened because PM Naoto Kan -who I am told had taken a 1 term module on Nuclear Physics about 40 years before - decided he knew best and took over co-ordination of the problem. His first actions included sending all the Mitsubishi guys back home, including several who had designed the plant systems.

  • Disruption, Democracy & the Global Order: An Evening with Yuval Noah Harari

    CSER and King’s College Cambridge hosted a talk by Professor Yuval Noah Harari on Disruption, Democracy & the Global Order. Harari’s talk focused on avoiding global war, which he thinks is necessary for providing the resources and wisdom to deal with other existential risks.

    Yuval is joining CSER as a Research Fellow, the first appointment in the Institute for Technology and Humanity’s Distinguished Fellowship programme.

    Read the blog

    Watch the recording
  • A global war shouln't be especially global..

    In our current example, only "things " should be highly destroyed from LA up to Moscow.. On the other axis damages won't cross mediteranean sea..

    Anyway, the rest of the world should continue quietly..Even with oil as the climate change will be stopped..Anyway..

    In few words what currently happens in northtern won't disturb China, india, Africa , South America and Asia.

    This is the real truth.....

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    "The most misleading assumptions are the ones you don't even know you're making" - Douglas Adams

  • Interesting interview.

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  • Kaiping, China

    Seven hundred metres below the rolling green landscape of Kaiping, southeast China, construction workers are furiously finishing a 35-metre-diameter orb-shaped detector that aims to observe ghostly subatomic particles known as neutrinos in exquisite detail. If all goes to plan, the US$376 million Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) will be ready to start detecting by the end of this year, says JUNO’s on-site manager Yuekun Heng, a physicist at the Chinese Academy of Science’s Institute of High Energy Physics in Beijing.

    That will make it the first of several ambitious new neutrino detectors currently being built around the world to go online. Two others — in Japan and the United States — are due to start collecting data in 2027 and 2031.

    Inside China’s giant underground neutrino lab
    Due to come online this year, the JUNO facility will help to determine which type of neutrino has the highest mass — one of the biggest mysteries in physics.

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