SAFIRE, SUNCELL, E-CAT SK: Three reactors, three theories, one common unifying mechanism - the EVO (Exotic Vacuum Object).

  • First time i read/heard this word" stoichiometry" used by Lenr members ;

    Most of the nuclear reactions considered by LENR members don’t involve enough atoms to measure stoichiometry. Stoichiometry is a beauty proof, because one can judge the perfection of measurements and calculations by how close the coefficients are to integer values.

    Another question, however, about what you call "phat

    Pharis Williams discovered and named phats. If you are going to get energies high enough to cause a nuclear reaction without depending on a radioactive source, how do you do it? Answer: phats. Phats form at the low temperature tail of a plasma, because they form as a boson condensate of the emissions of excited states. Its a kind of cooperative effect. I couldn’t speculate on instabilities in ITER, I don’t know enough high temperature plasma physics.

    Interesting patent - so you don't believe ultra dense D/H, hydrinos or -muons are involved in LENR - it's all down to phats and w-waves?

    Phat are just photons. But the energies and frequencies are just what is needed to cause weak force-based states to superpostion over the hydrogen atom. The result is dense D/H where the density is explained by the effects of special relativity. The idea of a hydrino is the opposite of general relativity. With general relativity an increase in mass/energy density causes contraction of space but with a hydrino the hydrogen atom would contract and release energy. The fusion mechanism is via a catalyst, but the catalyst is a dense cluster of H/D, like observed by Miley. I could see how that might appears as muons, so I understand the confusion. The w-wave model predicts that when a w-wave extend into an atoms nucleus that a magnetic field is produced that is so extreme that atoms can bond magnetically. To solve the mass balance, it was necessary to statistically account for magnetically bonded atoms. Magnetically bonded atoms are an observation that is also evidence of weak force based states.

    We are paying attention - it was all fine before your suggestion to couple it to a high temperature plasma - Holmlid is making the same mistake trying to pump -muons into a plasma - neither will work because you simply end up with hot fusion 'kicked off' with a different catalyst - you just end up with ITER again. But keep the reactions confined to a low temperature Mizuno - type reactor - that's the way ahead for LENR/CF. Keep it cool!

    The catalyzed reaction does the fusion but it produces a fuel rather than energy from the fusion reaction. The hypothesis is the fuel (IAM) is produced on the low temperature side of the sun corona. The cold is necessary to produce IAM. However, a different reaction is necessary to convert the IAM back to energy. Based on the kinetic equation provided, that reaction becomes more energetic as the temperature rises. Which could also mean that the extend of reaction to convert IAM back to energy is a function of temperature. If ITER could produce IAM and react it, it would already be working. So ITER is not the same as adding IAM to a high temperature plasma. It is not reasonable that there is a correlation between how hot an LENR/CF reaction gets and it heat yield? Why shouldn’t the two reactions be done, each with their optimum conditions?

    SAFIRE generates transmutation. It is not fusion. Fusion of heavy elements only happens in supernova explosions.

    The fusion of heavy elements happens without supernova explosions. See reports from ICCF-7. The explanation in terms of the catalyst is: when an atomic nucleus is infused with w-waves, that causes a giant nuclear dipole resonance which causes a charge shielding which lowers the coulomb barrier which allows fusion of Ni to Ni or other such reactions. You can find reports by Hora and Miley. The process is fusion followed by fission. The distribution of elements produced is a signature of fission of heavy elements.

  • The fusion mechanism is via a catalyst, but the catalyst is a dense cluster of H/D.

    Isn't this the same as the hydrino or UDH state (s) proposed by Mills & Holmlid? Only Holmlid has provided very strong evidence that the fusion catalyst is -muons released by UDH rather than being the dense cluster of H/D per se. Further, couldn't your proposed mechanisms run in parallel to Holmlid & Mills proposals?

  • I am sure there are many paths to fusion. For example, I imagine IAM can be combined with electrons and atmospheric gas to produce EV's. It has been reported that EV's can create transmutations on the witness plate. I use the mechanism to explain what transmutations to expect. I don't know enough about Homlid or Mill proposals to guess how they would predict what transmutation to expect or if they expect any. I have learned by experience not to get to caught up on whether I have a correct opinion because when I get more facts, I am going to change my opinion.

  • Dear Drgenek - can you explain this part of your patent - the patent seems to be a very complicated way of saying 'electron capture via W-bosons (w-waves) to form neutrons' ie neutron decay in reverse? Sure its one way of making fusion reactions happen - can you convince us that any of the cold transmutation reactions you propose can or do actually occur in reality? As Axil mentions, usually you need supernova temperatures to fuse such large nuclei.

    After fusion , w - waves may flow outward from the fusion product
    or toward the fusion product . The nucleons in pre - nuclear
    states draw w - waves from the giant dipole of a w - wave
    activated nuclear reaction product or a nuclear reaction
    product with sufficient nucleons and energy in the giant
    resonance acts as an endothermic sink for w - waves . The
    flow of w - waves depends on the composition of all the
    components of the system . In an example of an embodiment , the net reaction was exothermic ; the net flow of w - waves is
    from nano - sized nuclear reactors to other atoms . These other
    atoms are activated by w - waves . The net result is production
    of chemical / nuclear compositions which have fuel value

  • I'm continuing to study the details of double layers in plasmas. The field is vast and there's a great deal of literature. What's becoming very clear is that it's the structure of the double layer that is responsible for the anomalies we see in devices utilizing the negative resistance regime. The good thing is that it's relatively EASY to produce such a double layer. What's more complicated are all the dynamics involved including the attached circuit, the interaction of the different elements in the plasma, the ion acoustic waves, and the external magnetic fields that would interact with the plasma. I really believe that this is the future of LENR research. Instead of messing around with powder and hoping to see excess heat, you can see the results on the screen of an oscilloscope and if you have the right kind of spectrometer you can actually see the transmutation products in the gaseous environment itself.

    I'm also learning more about the importance of having mixed species of atoms/ions in the plasma. There seem to be multiple reasons by which this can help stabilize the double layer and/or macro-EVO. This seems to be especially true if the atoms are of different atomic weights.

  • Good luck with it all! I'm sure LENR occurs in dusty plasmas in brown dwarf stars or in double layers as you say - the problem is how to design or operate reactors based on plasmas without ending up with inertial or magnetic confinement systems to regulate these reactions? Or more simply - without the transition metal lattice confinement system we will always end up with a hot fusion ITER scenario. That's the beauty of cold fusion (even if no-one has really made it work 100% yet) - Mizuno's reactor, Brillouin Energy's hot tube, Atom Ecology, Takahashi's nanostructures, IH, all the evidence at ICCF-22, J of CMNS 2019, Holmlid & Norront Energy, the list of almost successful cold fusion is enormous. Just a matter of time before we have totally reliable systems - I think its all based on -muons as Sakharov originally proposed.

  • Small quibble - Norront's work is not in the solid state, and if they pursue the muon-based fusion path they are doing 'hot' fusion and will need to deal with the neutron activation issues. Still far better than ITER, fission or coal though!

  • EVOs are real.

    They are the heart of LENR.

    They are also highly classified.

    Exotic vaccum objects ? I just googled them and the first page of google's search results ONLY points to unreliable unserious pseudo-science homepages.

    So, which reliable and serious (group of) scientists can You refer to, who has "highly classified" those EVO's ?

  • Dear Drgenek - can you explain this part of your patent - the patent seems to be a very complicated way of saying 'electron capture via W-bosons (w-waves) to form neutrons' ie neutron decay in reverse? Sure its one way of making fusion reactions happen - can you convince us that any of the cold transmutation reactions you propose can or do actually occur in reality? As Axil mentions, usually you need supernova temperatures to fuse such large nuclei.

    W-wave don't need to form neutrons from protons to cause cold transmutation. Those neutrons come from photodisintegration of deuterium. After providing overall equations, I then suggest two series of two body reactions which lead to the overall reactions. It is in those series you will find your answers about fusion of heavier elements, see the reaction series with aluminum fusing to aluminum. The first reaction series generates w-waves which one expects flows with the heat flow to produce magnetic bonded atoms, as IAM. The second series is endothermic, it seems it gets energy to dissolve cobalt to deuterium from the first series. An endothermic flow of energy is due to entropy and therefore depends on the whole system.

  • Agreed, Holmlid doesn't recognise the existence of LENR or cold fusion - but this could always be his way of avoiding the academic discrimination, withdrawal of funding etc that might ensue if he did - and so they are embarking on a pointless exercise emulating hot fusion hoping to pump up hot plasmas of D or H with -muons derived from laser-activated ultra dense H (UDH) - its all in his patent. So what happens when this muon activated plasma heats up to 10 million K? Bang! And that would be a thermonuclear, H-bomb type bang unless you have either inertial or magnetic confinement to control the reaction ie maintain some stable steady-state. So we end up with an ITER situation again which could work with another few billion dollars of engineering.

    But what is really interesting about Holmlid's work is that I think he has discovered the theoretical basis underlying most successful LENR experiments, even going back to F&P. He has shown definitively that IR stimulation of UDH releases mesons which decay to -muons. These 'heavy (200X e-mass) electrons' in turn catalyse well characterised fusion reactions with H,D,or T. That side of the jigsaw is well-characterised. So how is UDH or UDD formed in electrolytic or dry gas experiments? This issue is probably one area where the 'unreliability' of cold fusion experiments arises. To form this ultra dense matter hydrogenation or dehydrogenation catalysts such as Pt, Ir, Rh or doped metal oxides KFeO2, MnO2-ZrO2, TiO2-ZrO2 can be used, the best being KFeO2 which Holmlid routinely uses. So - were any UDH forming catalysts present in F&P's original work, leading to muon formation at the Pd cathodes and thus cold fusion? The answer is yes, in one report only Pd containing trace Rh (UDD catalyst) were effective in producing excess heat - in other experiments some oxides were undoubtedly formed at the anode possibly to form low quantities of UDD.

    Which brings us to present day speculation about Mizuno's amazing results - and I have proposed that metal oxides present in the stainless steel (or even some remaining NiO or PdO2 on the mesh) might be sufficient to generate UDD which in the R20/21 reactors is stimulated with IR from an internal heater. Negative results from Deneum or transients from Zhang might be due to insufficient catalyst thus no or little UDD for generating muons and thus limited or no fusion leading to low transient or no excess heat. Simple enough to test - add in KFeO2 catalysts to enhance the effect or inhibit it by - muon quenching with nitrogen or Ne gas. Maybe I'll apply for a Quantum LENR research grant to test this out.

  • Whoops- I was responding to Bob Ellefson's post. But yes, Drgenek its all feasible stoichiometrically, ie chemical mathematically on paper. So phats are formed from low-energy photons as proposed by Pharis Williams which then exceed the Mev energy required for Deuterium splitting, freeing up neutrons to fuse with other D nuclei. All catalysed under your weak nuclear force (w) waves? Is this the wave -equivalent of the W-boson (or Z) then (which mediates the weak nuclear force)? It is rather suggestive of reverse beta decay especially when you bring neutrinos into the picture. Good luck with this patent, I can only suggest simplifying it as much as possible to push it past the examiner - maybe leave out some concepts like 'wandering w-waves'.

  • Yes, it is the wave equivalent of reverse neutron decay in quantum steps. The steps (n states) are all related by math, the process doesn't have to increase stepwise and energy transfer into target nuclei happens without formation of a neutron. Further, once the w-wave energy reaches a target it is preserved as a giant nuclear resonance which cause a charge separation which acts as a shielding. The larger the shielding of positive charge in the target nucleus, the lower the coulomb barrier to fusion and the lower the kinetic energy required for fusion. Hence, in the case where the metal is exposed to hydrolysis and has deformities (read as Storm's cracks) in the otherwise crystal matrix, that deformation can separate the metal to a distance that allows a waveguide for the one of those n states. So, the waveguide is a receiver of light that causes hydrogen to contract under the effect of acceleration of the neutrino, which leads to a dense cluster of hydrogen (catalyst or NAE), which catalyst is a sink for w-waves. The w-waves then tend to deposit in nucleon rich elements exposed to the catalyst, Hence, w-wave concentrate mostly to the metals in the electrode surface. That lowers the coulomb barrier of those w-activated elements which leads to fusion. However, the fusion products are mostly non-stable isotopes due their high atomic weight, so they fission. Of course fission leaves a pattern of isotopes which is characteristic of the parent unstable isotope. In ICCF-7 Miley provides data which can confirm what I just wrote. See "Product Characteristics and Energetic in Thin-Film Electrolysis Experiments." He states "the proton-metallic lattice form a complex intermediate nucleus that subsequently fissions producing the observed product array." Also in ICCF-7, Hora provides additional support to the concept of fusion of heavy elements.

  • EVO is impossible as a cold fusion mechanism from apparent reason: once just an one single EVO can make visible tracks observable by microscope, then the material would appear resemble emmental cheese after some evolution of heat. Here LENR community exhibits similar bias, like mainstream physics which looks for physically detectable particles behind all phenomena (gravitons as a mediator of gravity, WIMPs particles as a dark matter, etc..)