New US Navy/ US Army LENR research.

  • As has been reported and discussed here on the forum for years, the US Navy has been involved in LENR for decades. In 2012 I believe, they shifted most of their SPAWAR work to NASA, where it continues to this day. 5 years ago, a new team of Navy researchers received DARPA funding to start their own LENR research program, and recently presented their work at ICCF24 (July 2022). Joining the Navy is another new entrant into the LENR field, and that is the US Army (Corp of Engineers). Here is the first presentation (others will follow as they are made available) given by Oliver Barham (US Navy Project Manager):


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  • See my comment about Benyo's presentation:


  • Without wanting to rot or divert the truth, I have several times highlighted the strange similarity of this US Navy patent with that of Rossi concerning the "Doral" type release.

    https://appft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-adv.html&r=1&p=1&f=G&l=50&d=PG01&S1=20210090752.PGNR.&OS=dn/20210090752&RS=DN/20210090752

    For example let's see the paragraph 27:


    mixture of approximately 50% nickel, approximately 20% lithium, and approximately 30% LAH. Within this mixture, nickel acts as a catalyst for the reaction, and is not itself a reagent. While nickel is particularly useful because of its relative abundance, its function can also be accomplished by other elements in IUPAC group-10 transition metals of the periodic table, such as platinum (Pt) or palladium (Pa)


    Here in the Doral patent:https://patents.google.com/patent/US9115913B1/en


    it has been found that a suitable mixture would include a starting mixture of 50% nickel, 20% lithium, and 30% LAH. Within this mixture, nickel acts as a catalyst for the reaction, and is not itself a reagent. While nickel is particularly useful because of its relative abundance, its function can also be carried out by other elements in column 10 of the periodic table, such as platinum or palladium.


    Without wanting to make hasty conclusions, I would like the "patent" experts who share this forum, to be able to give their professional opinion, even if it does not correspond to what I may have believed.

  • Has anybody explained this "coincidence" ?

  • Absolutely nobody!

    People only look at the truths that want to see.

    Not being a patent expert, that's why I ask for their help, with an open mind.

    Btw, either the Navy actually bought this Rossi Patent, 10 years ago.

    Or, they have made a kind of catch-all patent, in order to protect themselves from the Rossi Technology if this one would have to use it.

    In this case, that would mean that the Navy, that of Nimitz would be afraid of a notorious little crook ?

    Weird.

    Has anybody explained this "coincidence" ?

  • There are no citations attached, referring to other patents. I think that is a bit 'fishy smelling'. Also the thermite triggering system is IMHO pretty much nonsense. Thermite burning is a completely uncontrollable chemical reaction once triggered by heat.


    As seen here:-


    Vimeo

  • Yes it looks rather like a catch-all patent but for what of kind of purpose ?

    There are no citations attached, referring to other patents. I think that is a bit 'fishy smelling'. Also the thermite triggering system is IMHO pretty much nonsense. Thermite burning is a completely uncontrollable chemical reaction once triggered by heat.

  • Who knows? I suspect the English vernacular term 'arse-covering' fits the bill

    They certainly have plenty of patent material to "cover their arse" with...

    Regards Rossi

    Self interest may extend to cooperation.

    iMHO

    Future historians may find ties i.e. Leonardo Corporation et.al. and the United States Government et.al.


    The government of the United States of America has filed many ‘cold fusion’ LENR patents. These LENR patents take time to develop, often a number of years, before being filed with a patent office; each being a tedious project unto itself. One patent’s development began with a contract from NSWC, Indian Head Division in 2008, “Deuterium Reactor” US 20130235963 A1, by Pharis Edward Williams. This patent was not filed till 2012, four years later. Another delay can occur between the patent filing date and publication date if the patent is deemed a matter of national security. An example of this is the 2007 SPAWAR patent, System and Method for Generating Particles – US8419919B1, with a filing date of Sep. 21, 2007 and publication date of Apr. 16, 2013, a delay of six years.


    U.S. LENR patent development has been funded through the Air Force, NASA, the Navy and a few other Department of Defense labs. The government may retain rights to any of these LENR patents and control licensing agreements. Patent licensing may be granted to those who partnered with government labs in the development of LENR technology.


    1993 Air Force Patent “Method of maximizing anharmonic oscillations in deuterated alloys” US5411654A Assignee: HYDROELECTRON VENTURES Inc, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, US Air Force – This invention was made with U.S. Government support under contract No. F19628-90-C-0002, awarded by the Air Force. The Government has certain rights in this invention. GRANT issued: Feb. 5, 1995 – Inventors: Brian S. Ahern, Keith H. Johnson, Harry R. Clark Jr.https://patents.google.com/patent/US5411654A


    1996 Air Force Patent (a continuation) “Method of maximizing anharmonic oscillations in deuterated alloys” US5770036A1 This invention was made with U.S. Government support under contract No. F19-6528-90-C-0002, awarded by the Air Force. The Government has certain rights in this invention. This application is a continuation of Ser. No. 08/331,007, filed Oct. 28, 1994, now abandoned, which is a division of Ser. No. 08/086,821, filed Jul. 2, 1993, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,411,654 – inventor: Brian S. Ahern

    US20110233061A1 - Amplification of energetic reactions - Google Patents


    2007 SPAWAR Patent “System and method for generating particles” US8419919B1 – Filing: Sep 21, 2007 – Publication: Apr 16, 2013

    – Assignee: JWK International Corporation, The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy – GRANT Issued: Apr 16, 2013 2007

    Inventors: Pamela A. Boss, Frank E. Gordon, Stanislaw Szpak, Lawrence Parker Galloway Forsley https://www.google.com/patents/US8419919B1


    2008 Patent (SPAWAR LENR tech) “A hybrid fusion fast fission reactor”WO2009108331A2 – Publication date: Dec 30, 2009 – Priority date: Feb 25, 2008

    Inventors: Lawrence Parker Galloway Forsley, Jay Wook Khim

    Applicant: Forsley, Lawrence Parker Gallow

    WO2009108331A2 - A hybrid fusion fast fission reactor - Google Patents


    2008 DoD Patent (2014 publication date) “Deuterium Reactor” US 20130235963 A1 – Filed: Mar 12, 2012 $25,000 was received in 2008 from NSWC, Indian Head Division, to design experiments, review reports, and analyze data. The experiments verified heating using powered/granulated fuel. (ed. note) Quote: “As a United States Department of Defense (DoD) Energetics Center, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division is a critical component of the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) Warfare Center (WFC) Enterprise. One of the WFC’s nine Divisions, Indian Head’s mission is to research, develop, test, evaluate, and produce energetics and energetic systems for U.S. fighting forces.” -end quote – Inventor: Pharis Edward Williams Original Assignee: Pharis Edward Williams https://www.google.com/patents/US20130235963A1

  • $25,000 was received in 2008 from NSWC, Indian Head Division, to design experiments, review reports, and analyze data. The experiments verified heating using powered/granulated fuel

    The patent abandoned, yes.

    I wonder if thats true for the experiments designed, conclusions made, and data analysis provided by Pharis, while under contract at NSWC.


    I'm fascinated by the masters thesis submitted and defended by Pharis Williams. His long-term good standing with the Navy sheds light on why he was awarded this contract.

    His obituary provides further insight into the respect he had as a Naval researcher.

    I believe his thesis shows how he would view the chemical role (environment) of LENR, which Storm and Cydonia reference.


    The LENRs postulate for 1989 (today) remains the chemistry involvement.

    Pharis Edward Williams' thoughts encompasses both the chemical and the nuclear in dynamic systems.


    Thesis

    1976

    "On a Possible Formulation of Particle Dynamics in Terms of Thermodynamic Conceptualizations and the Role of Entropy in it"

    Williams, Pharis Edward; Woehler, K. E.

    Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School

    http://hdl.handle.net/10945/17882

    Downloaded from NPS Archive: Calhoun


    by PE Williams · 1976 · Cited by 11 — Pharis Edward Williams. Juane 1976. -wThesis. Advisor: K.E. Woehier. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.

    Source

    apps.dtic.mil was first indexed by Google more than 10 years ago

    https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/pdfs/ADA028082.pdf


    Abstract

    It is shown that the laws of particle dynamics can be formulated in a thermodynamic framework. An important role is played by an integrating factor which makes the energy exchange with the environment a total differential and leads to the definition of a mechanical entropy. The integrating factor is shown to be a function of velocity only and an argument following Caratheodory 's proves the existence of a unique limiting velocity which makes its appearance in the integrating factor.

    Equilibrium and stability conditions for dynamic systems are derived and lead to the formulation of dynamics as processes in a space-entropy manifold the metric of which is determined by the nature of the system. The dynamic laws follow from a variational principle. For the case of isentropic processes and with a particular choice of the integrating factor they are shown to be the laws of special relativistic mechanics. More general dynamic processes are discussed.


    Obituary

    April 2015

    "Memorial and Thoughts of a Man with Great Ideas - Pharis Williams"

    Conference: STAIF IIAt: Albuquerque

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/276268974_Memorial_and_Thoughts_of_a_Man_with_Great_Ideas-Pharis_Williams

    Project: Dynamic Theory

    https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Warren-Maines

    Authors:

    Warren Russell Maines

    Get Smart, LLC

    James O. Shannon

    David Mathis

    Paul Murad


    Abstract

    Pharis Edward Williams was from Missouri. During his lifetime, he possessed an amazing ability to conceive original technical ideas. He raised questions that others would ignore. This created a ‘new’ perspective that would lead him to increasing knowledge and experience while in the Navy as well as in research laboratories. His Master of Nuclear Physics dissertation demonstrated this prevalent view. He proposed generalizations of the classical Thermodynamic Laws leading to the fundamental principles of what he termed ‘The Dynamic Theory’. In this theory, an important role is played by identifying an integrating factor that makes the energy exchange with the environment a total differential and leads to the definition of a mechanical entropy. Equilibrium and stability conditions for dynamic systems are derived and together with the principle of increasing entropy provide a geometrical structure from which the theories of relativity, Maxwell's electromagnetism, and quantum effects may be derived. By applying simplifying or restrictive assumptions to the main body of the theory, Pharis shows that the major fields of physics are contained within the extensions of this theory. In these extensions, new field quantities appear to become important for systems and technical disciplines. Thus, the Dynamic Theory that he created would unify the various branches of physics into one theoretical structure. Only the future can tell what will be the impact of Pharis’ dynamic theory contributions and how engineers and scientists can gain and find new insights.

  • This Navy thread really got me to thinking...


    With Williams' frame of mind, What type of solid state LENR experiments would he recommend to his contract managers? What data collection would he advise? What analysis and hypothesis might he have provided?


    For this reason I've included his Master's Thesis Introduction and successful Naval defense of. Such for consideration.

    From 1976/77

    Which, perhaps, is worthy of it's own thread.


    INTRODUCTION


    This study presents a new formulation of general dynamic systems. This formulation includes both thermodynamic and mechanistic concepts. It is shown that even relativistic mechanics with its characteristic occurrence of a limiting velocity can be described on the basis of thermodynamic concepts. This approach also sheds light on the role of entropy in the description of non-conservative mechanical systems.


    Physical theories are proposed for many reasons.

    One of these might be to describe, or understand, a familiar phenomenon which had no prior description or explanation.

    Another might be the discovery of new phenomenon, or the results of a new experiment, which has'no explanation within the scope of existing theories.

    Still another is to bring the description of phenomena which at first appear to be unrelated together under a unifying theory.

    The motivation, or objective, involved in the development and proposal of any theory plays an important role in the philosophical basis upon which the theory is developed and, therefore, may become a part of the theory itself.


    The motivation for this investigation arose from a number of questions which one could rather naively ask:


    The first concerns the requirement of Lorentz covariance of all laws of nature. Ample theoretical and experimental evidence exists for this requirement when electromagnetic forces are considered. Electromagnetic waves are accurately described by Maxwell's equations and propagate in free space with the speed c for every inertial observer.


    But what forces us to require Lorentz covariance for all laws of nature, even those dealing with other than the electromagnetic interactions?

    What about the gravitational or the weak interaction?

    Gravitational waves have been predicted and their detection has recently been claimed.

    Could these not travel in free space with some other velocity b?

    Are there any other reasons than aesthetics or the principle of Occams razor, which asks us to consider only the simplest system of laws, that there is only one characteristic velocity in nature?


    A second question concerns the role of time assymmetry.


    The equations of motion in both Newtonian and relativistic mechanics are time symmetrical. Yet nature displays a directivity that would not be described by the universal application of time symmetrical laws. The most vivid display of this directivity in nature is in thermodynamics where the principle of increasing thermodynamic entropy has many uses.

    Then should not all dynamics share such a directivity?

    If so, this directivity would not be seen in time symmetrical. laws of motion.

    Dynamics, as described by relativity, has a limiting value of velocity which is the speed of light.


    This notion of a limiting value also appears in thermodynamics in the absolute zero temperature. This similarity between thermo dynamics and relativistic dynamics creates the desire to introduce the possibility of temporal directivity into mechanics, and the strength and generality of the basic laws of thermodynamics focused this investigation.


    The objective of this investigation was to determine whether or not the logical structure of classical thermo dynamics could yield dynamical laws which could be applied to mechanical systems and produce equations of motion which would contain existing dynamical theories as limiting, or special cases, and provide the directivity seen in nature.


    The following proposed formulation of a dynamical theory is the result of such an investigation. It should perhaps be stated here that this formulation does not represent an attempt to base mechanical dynamics upon thermodynamics itself but to use the logical formulism of thermodynamics as a common basis for different branches of dynamics.


    The investigation is based upon the formulation of three dynamical laws identical in structure to the three laws of thermodynamics. The only difference between the development presented here up to, and including, stability conditions and the development of thermodynamics is that velocity, position, and force will be used as thermodynamic variables instead of temperature, volume and ptessure.


    It may seem that little is to be gained by simply rewriting thermodynamics and particle dynamics in this fashion. However if the possibility exists for thermodynamics and particle dynamics to result from the application of the same laws, these laws must be identical with thermodynamic laws when thermodynamic variables are used.


    To see the results of these laws applied to particle dynamics requires the use of the variables normally used for particle motion description.


    Section II presents the three proposed dynamical laws.


    The section also includes the axiomatic development of the dynamical second law and determines an integrating factor which makes the differential energy exchange between the system and the environment a perfect differential. The integrating factor is shown to be a function only of the velocity. An argument, following Caratheodory's, proves the existence of a unique limiting velocity. The concept of mechanical entropy is introduced and the principle of increasing mechanical entropy is presented.


    In thermodynamics other state functions are defined and prove very useful in different applications. The same state functions for the mechanical system should also play similar useful roles.


    Section III defines these state functions and derives the mechanical Maxwell relations based on these functions.


    Section IV derives the equilibrium and stability conditions based on the mechanical state functions.

    The analysis results in quadratic forms in various variables which express the stability conditions.

    These are the required quadratic forms.


    Up to this point thermodynamic logic has been used exclusively. But the development has shown the existence of a limiting velocity and the existence of the mechanical entropy.

    The development also displays the "natural" variables of particle dynamics. These variables may be seen in the quadratic forms which express the stability conditions.


    This is the point where this thesis introduces a new idea.


    The new idea is the adoption of the quadratic forms and variables that express the stability conditions as the metrics and natural variables which govern particle dynamics.


    The natural variables that appear in the simplest quadratic form are the space coordinates and the mechanical entropy.

    The metric in relativistic particle dynamics is a metric involving space and time as the variables.

    Therefore Section V deviates from a logical abstract approach, which suggests the investigation continue on by adopting the metric, by looking at the most general motion, and showing that in special cases the allowed motion is identical with the motion of Newtonian or relativistic dynamics.


    This digression demonstrates the consistency between the proposed thermodynamic description of a mechanical isentropic system and the description provided by Newtonian and relativistic mechanics. It provides a measure of confidence in the abstract approach which is picked up again in Section VI.

    Here the arc element and parameterization are discussed and the resulting equations of motion are presented.


    Appendices A, B, and C provide proofs and developments in support of the text.

    Appendix E briefly discusses a possible prediction of expanding planetary orbits.

    Consistency with relativistic particle dynamics is again addressed

    in Appendix D where the space-time manifold is shown to be the result from the application of the principle of increasing mechanical entropy to the space-entropy manifold. This represents the completion of the logical progression which formulates the dynamical laws, deriving the quadratic forms (which are taken as the metric), applies the dynamical second law in the form of the mechanical entropy principle, and shows that the resulting manifold is a space-time manifold which, for the special case of a Euclidean manifold, is the Minkowski space of special relativity.

    Appendix F presents a brief look at the equations of motion which result from two different methods of parameterizing the space-entropy manifold.

    Figure 1 is a flow chart which indicates the logical structure of the text and the manner in which the Appendices fit into this structure.

  • Get inspired, also by newcomers on the forum, since ICCF, some say really interesting things.