I think your line of reasoning is based on a misunderstanding of what Rossi is saying. We all know it is impossible to 'completely' recover lost heat energy (from powering the controller for instance). It is therefore safe to assume Rossi means that the energy produced by the SK is more than enough to 'cover' the energy losses to the controller. English is not Rossi's first language.
I don’t think so. Rossi has been saying stuff like this for years.
The control heat will not be wasted, it will be added to the process, somehow, even if it means that one could turn down the room (or adjacent rooms) thermostat a bit due to free heat from the controller, or run a pizza (Barbie?) oven with it...
The theory F&P tested in this Boiling experiement was If the excess heat they measured at lower temepratures increased at higher temperatures.
This theory could also be tested using closed cells as Mckubre used with recombination catalyst and add on a condenser for the steam.
In such setup there would be no discussion on foam or carry over of droplets in steam.
True, however the foam seems to be the crux of this discussion, so I thought that a foam test might help answer some questions. If this discussion is still going on a year from now, without a foam/boiling in a test tube experiment, then perhaps I will tool up for the challenge. I don’t have the equipment to do a proper job of it at the moment.
I don’t want to have to build the lithium salt test tube boiling rig...
There must be hundreds of similar arrangements out there somewhere.
Boil off a perfect blank, film the foam, etc.
There will be endless discussion on how good the replica is, so I recommend making a simple test tube boiler with a thin electrically insulated heater element to start, if starting from scratch.
Using steam-engine, the wire twist rate, lead length, coil spacing etc, could be fine-tuned to get a 20 cm coil exactly... 🙂
I had to do that last one from memory, in a few minutes, and didn’t spend much time dialling in the coil size.
BTW, the Rods I found to be a nearly intractable problem (especially with no FEM). There is poor to incomplete information on them, and far too many opinion answers to questions than data answers to questions associated with them for my liking.
I am still interested to see if it looks like the 2/3 factor was applied (or not) to the Rods in the Active Runs in the report (even if the method used was flawed anyway), since the numbers reported and the supporting data supplied are not clear on that point.
When I worked out the specifications for the windings, using steam-engine.org calculator, I ended up with 30 wraps in the reactor main body area, 10 wraps for each of the three windings. This in turn gives 7 mm spacing between each adjacent winding (21 mm spacing for each coil winding).
The number of twists unit length for the heater windings is important to getting the resistance and overal length of each winding into the correct range (fit the reactor space and have the correct amount sticking out the ends, using the correct Kanthal wire size).
(This from memory, but I posted the steam-engine page with filled-in parameters in here quite some time ago, and made such a winding to verify the calculator [which works very well indeed]. I will have to find the steam-engine calculations to see if the spacing included one of the windings’ diameter within the spacing, or not).
Edit: The steam engine website had some upgrades, so old bookmarks don’t seem to insert the values into the boxes correctly, and new bookmarks aren’t saving the specifications.
The calculator credits the leads with 23.8 % of the total Joule heat/length of the windings. Wrap spacing is 21 mm between each coil loop for each coil, so the spacing between adjacent coils is close to 4 mm, with a twisted wire diameter of 2.9 mm.
One coil: (settings for steam-engine). Three required.
Twist pitch 2.9 mm
Target resistance 0.41 ohms
Inner diameter of coil 10 mm
Leg length total 175 mm
Wrap spacing 21 mm
Resistance wire length (twisted pair) 734 mm
Wire length 559 mm (coil part)
Helix angle 25.7 degrees
Leg power loss 23.8 %
Heat capacity 10059.67 mJ/K
Heat flux 200 mW/mm2
Stable output: 1700 W @ 26.4 V
About 5 cm leads of each of three twisted heater coil wires exit the Caps at both ends of the “reactor”. About 1 cm each is used at the clamp connection to the C2 cables. This leaves about 4 cm each, or 12 cm combined of Kanthal resistance wire inserted into the rods, at each end, heating the Rod ends.
About 30% of the total heater coil twisted wiring is contained in the Caps and the extensions into the Rods.
Therefore, roughly 30% of the total input power is fed to the combined Caps and Rods, or ~ 15 % into each end (but not 100% of that actually goes to the Rods due to the loose fit of the Rods to Caps).
The glowing twisted wires are quite visible in the Lugano photos. The caption of one photo suggests that the twisted leads are glowing due to conduction from the reactor, which is silly. The wires are glowing orange hot because up to 50 A are passing through them.
Some of the IH pictures from their NC lab of the "6 cylinder" were impressive
The "6 cylinder" photo in the lawsuit files was taken in Ferrara. One can match the benches and misc shop equipment to those in the Validation photos.
The "6 cylinder did make it to Raleigh, however.
Somewhere along the way, the link to the hi-res version of the photo used in the Gullstrom report was posted here.
Is that the hi-res one above?
And a battery powered X-ray device could easily make a “gamma” burst.
2000000+ CPS easily.
I cannot find a direct quote from Francesco himself, but here's JR's take on this.
I think the history is getting tangled.
There was a rather old Celani story about Rossi gammas in Italy somewhere, Bologna or Ferrara probably.
Celani at Lugano and gamma bursts at Lugano are new, confused additions to the story.
What is the explanation for the “restrained” heat dots?
Shane D. The sad story of Tom is an exception. He should foresee consequences and not post anything on this forum. Sensing a snake around you as an essential skill like multiplication table.
Sadly, it is not an unusual exception. The internet is full of people who stalk, pester, and otherwise make life difficult for others with different opinions, especially if they feel their beliefs are threatened or being attacked. Some of them think they are fighting The Man, or a secret technology-suppressing cabal, shadow government etc. These people might not even ever post a comment, just read the forum (blog, whatever), then decide to take matters into their own hands. sometimes it is merely a nuisance, other times it becomes very serious.
I'm still trying to determine if I live in a naturally slightly more radioactive environment than average (a few times over background) or if somehow my testing produced radioactive product of some sort which apparently affects humidity-collecting spots more than others. Fun in a way, but not so fun in others. It doesn't seem like it's Radon, or readings would more quickly change with environmental conditions, ventilation, etc. Or wouldn't they?
A low geological background would be in an area of basalt or gabbro (dark green is best), while a granite area will have a significantly higher background. Many syenites (looks like granite but has no quartz) will have a much higher radioactivity than most granite. Other rock types are rather variable, although limestone should have a low background also. Sandstone can be extremely variable. Beach sands high in magnetite (and garnets) can also often have moderately high radioactivity due to heavy thorium and uranium-bearing minerals concentrating along with the magnetite there also.
'Tis but thy name that is my enemy;
Thou art thyself, though not a Montague.
What's Montague? It is nor hand, nor foot,
Nor arm, nor face, nor any other part
Belonging to a man. O, be some other name!
What's in a name? That which we call a rose
By any other word would smell as sweet;
So Romeo would, were he not Romeo call'd,
Retain that dear perfection which he owes
Without that title. Romeo, doff thy name,
And for that name which is no part of thee
Take all myself.
Rain (wet ground) can dampen the ground-sourced radioactive background levels, compared to dry ground. In radon-elevated areas, wind can blow radon around, making spurious increases in gamma counts, when using sensitive devices.
Shane D. ,
I was noticing also the recent comments on an important weak link in Stockholm. I was thinking that may he was testing the water for making crappy input measurements again and blaming the control box, or buttering us up for crappy input measurements again.
K40 is a convenient peak to calibrate a spectrum to and ensure that the detector is seeing something real. Maybe every reactor needs a referee jar of KCl salt on top.
Radon can turn to Pb inside your lungs while firing a harsh gamma or more through (hopefully, not into) a lung or two.
kW and kWh are not interchangeable.
How much energy can a horse expend (not generate) in an hour?
So, the complete quote from Wikipedia, paraphrasing Nature magazine goes like this:
"In 1993, R. D. Stevenson and R. J. Wassersug published correspondence in Nature summarizing measurements and calculations of peak and sustained work rates of a horse. Citing measurements made at the 1926 Iowa State Fair, they reported that the peak power over a few seconds has been measured to be as high as 14.9 hp (11.1 kW) and also observed that for sustained activity, a work rate of about 1 hp (0.75 kW) per horse is consistent with agricultural advice from both the 19th and 20th centuries and also consistent with a work rate of about 4 times the basal rate expended by other vertebrates for sustained activity."
I wonder, how many thingamajigs Rossi can (supposedly) make in a day?
He had limited time to choose the final version due to amazing improvements (20 W, 100 W, 1 kW, bigger, hotter, etc.), then he has to make enough for 40 MW, figure out how to control wire and affix the units, etc., which takes time, subtracting from the deadline time. Build and program the robot factory, or make by hand.., still posting on JoNP all the while....
During January event.As a cameo David Copperfield will make a container with 1MW reactor dissapear.
Has anyone checked to see if the 1mW Plant carcasses have disappeared from the Doral parking lot yet?
Yeah, he’s got 7 “Robotic” production lines up and running now, cranking out thousands of Ecats.
He has to produce something like 4000 units and get them installed by January...
A video-only demonstration with no witnesses. A challenge: could there be anything less meaningful?
As meaningful as the “this is steam” video posted on one of the e-cat channels, which was not steam from an ecat operation at all. (Hilariously the video showed what has been missing from all the Rossi demos).
It is not so much the power, but the reaction rate that makes an explosion. A stick of dynamite and a cheeseburger have similar energy densities. It is more about how fast they burn.
If LENR really is some sort of NR, then the reaction rates potentially could be very high, since nuclear events are rarely slow.
From the Parkhomov QA on ECW it looks like there might have been a solenoid actuating the graphite rod after all, just not visible in the video.
The diagram you posted there looks plausible. The rate of "pecking" might be tricky to control.
The Doctor and his Nuclear Engineers installed a 2 MW boiler in Doral, and used on only half of it (little boxes tested, working, but leaky) (and usually only about 3/4 of the half they did use) for a COP of >80 average. A reactor of some sort was certified safe by an indipendent Doctor (also is ERV).
The case was settled out of court, so I do not see how Rossi's lawyers could get in trouble.
The earlier Complaint (pages 60-62) made it clear that Rossi's lawyers were referring to Rossi and Penon as a Doctor. This could be viewed as endorsing a false qualification of a PhD.
Johnson is of course in part responsible for the Doral fiasco, being President of JMP and Leonardo, and therefore ultimately responsible for making sure everything was compliant and legal.