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    Beyond co-deposition?

    High temperature electrochemical charging of hydrogen and its application in hydrogen embrittlement research (2006) * Ming Au ∗ Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808, United States


    A high temperature electrochemical charging technique was developed for effective introduction of hydrogen or tritium into the metallic materials to a high level in a short period of time. The samples of the steels and alloys, as the cathode, were charged in an electrochemical cell consists of Pt anode and molten salt electrolyte. After 3, 6 and 12 h charging, the 304 stainless steel absorbed 25, 45 and 60 ppm of hydrogen, respectively.

    Correspondingly, the mechanical strength lost 10, 16 and 23%. The plasticity was also reduced to 20, 23 and 38%. The fractography showed the hydrogen embrittlement effect on the fractures. The electrochemical hydrogen charging technique was successfully used for introducing tritium, an

    isotope of hydrogen, into the super alloys for visualization of hydrogen trapped in the microstructure of the materials.

    It is found that the hydrogen is trapped at the grain boundaries, in inclusions and carbides. The deformed and twisted grain boundaries trap most hydrogen under stress.

    The link provided by cccp above is to a new book due out in early 2022. - here are the details (and the price).

    Unified Field Theory and Occam's Razor -Simple Solutions to Deep Questions

    By (author): Andràs Kovàcs (BroadBit Energy Technologies, Finland), Giorgio Vassallo (University of Palermo, Italy), Paul O'Hara (Sophia University Institute, Italy), Francesco Celani (INFN-LNF, Italy) and Antonino Oscar Di Tommaso (University of Palermo, Italy)

    ISBN: 978-1-80061-129-0 (hardcover)

    GBP 115.00

    Unified Field Theory was an expression first used by Einstein in his attempt to unify general relativity with electromagnetism. Unified Field Theory and Occam's Razor attempts to provide real answers to foundational questions related to this unification and should be of high interest to innovative scientists. A diverse group of contributing authors approach an old problem with an open-mindedness that presents a new and fresh perspective. The following topics are discussed in detail in the hope of a fruitful dialogue with all who are interested in this subject:

    The composition of electrons, photons, and neutrinos.

    The relationship of quantum mechanics to general relativity.

    The four-component Dirac spinor and the meaning of imaginary numbers in this complex-valued field.

    The Dirac equation as a proper field equation.

    The Pauli exclusion principle and quantum entanglement.

    High-temperature superconductivity.

    This highly original book brings together theoretical researchers and experimentalists specialized in the areas of mathematics and epistemology, theoretical and experimental physics, engineering, and technology. For years they have worked independently on topics related to the foundations and unity of physics and have had numerous overlapping ideas in terms of using Clifford Algebra and spinors. Within the book, new technology applications are outlined and theoretical results are complemented by interpretations of experimental data.

    [user = '4079'] Raimund Popp [/ user]

    I hear you are seeking research materials. You can email me via the forum - I may be able to help. But maybe you should consider doing something simple like the LEC? All the materials for that are freely available.

    As the researchers report in "Nature", they failed to load metals such as palladium with as much hydrogen as is supposedly necessary for a nuclear reaction to get going. If a high concentration of hydrogen is indeed the prerequisite for a cold fusion, so their conclusion, more should be done to prepare stable samples

    The Google project is ongoing at some level, but the primary concern of many already working in the field was that they never asked anybody for advice - even Ed Storms said they only asked him about calorimeters - not about Pd / D preparation.

    The Google team suggested they were keen to avoid 'cross contamination' of ideas. Problem is that so far they have not revealed that have had any significant ones of their own.

    Breaking- UK to start 3rd jab programme, starting with vulnerable over-70's. Everyone to get Pfizer regardless of first dose type. Some suggestions that it will be the current flu-shot in one arm and Pfizer Covid in the other.

    We are going to have perforated pensioners.

    Posted by a good friend on ECW, this is a discussion of some fascinating science.

    See also…ogy-and-eleven-questions/

    Once in a while you hear about a radical technology that makes you think, “If this is real it could change the world!” This is what happened to me recently after watching the video posted to YouTube by Dr. Garret Moddel of the University of Colorado about his breakthrough invention. Instantly, I became fascinated with the concept and started reading everything I could find about it and the Casimir Effect in general. I’m now convinced that it probably works how he says it does and could possibly accelerate the global paradigm shift.

    His invention taps energy from the fluctuations of the Zero Point Energy field by attaching a Casimir Cavity to a metal insulator metal junction. A Casimir Cavity in the simplest version can be described as two flat parallel electrically neutral plates positioned very close together – a micron or a millionth of a meter or less. Since the Zero Point Energy field is thought to be composed of a broad range of photon wavelengths and therefore associated energies, many of these wavelengths are excluded from the gap in between the two plates which are acting as mirrors. The result is a reduction in the ZPE force or pressure between the plates and more pressure on the outside of the plates. This produces a force pushing the plates together.

    Video link :-

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    Jacques Ruer's report on IWAHLM-14.

    Lettre N°27
    IWAHLM 14 et nouvelles du Japon
    Jacques Ruer
    Comme je l’avais signalé dans la lettre précédente la conférence baptisée
    International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen Loaded Metals N°14 s’est tenue à Assise
    du dimanche 29 août au mercredi 1er septembre.
    Contrairement aux éditions passées cette conférence n’a réuni que 25 participants à cause des
    limitations liées à la pandémie. Tous les participants étaient européens mais il était possible
    de suivre la conférence par internet. 20 communications ont été présentées. Le nombre de
    personnes présentes était réduit mais cela a été un grand plaisir de retrouver le contact
    physique avec les confrères bien connus. L’atmosphère conviviale doit aussi beaucoup à
    l’organisation de nos dévoués et sympathiques amis italiens.
    Les présentations orales peuvent être écoutées via l’adresse :

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    Le livret des résumés des conférences est également accessible, mais tous les papiers n’ont
    pas été présentés :
    Lors de cette conférence il a été possible d’avoir des nouvelles du projet européen
    CleanHME. Le professeur Konrad Czerski et son équipe de l’université de Sczcecin en
    Pologne ont parlé des expériences sur accélérateur de particules qui montrent que la
    probabilité de réactions entre deutérons est améliorée par l’écrantage des électrons qui
    entourent les noyaux ainsi que par des phénomènes de résonance quantique des noyaux
    Plusieurs présentations ont eu pour sujet les montages qui génèrent spontanément de
    l’électricité. Deux électrodes différentes dont une chargée en hydrogène sont séparées par une
    faible épaisseur de gaz. Un faible courant circule entre les électrodes, phénomène de faible
    amplitude sans grande application pratique pour l’instant mais qui est inexpliquée et mérite
    pour cela qu’on s’y intéresse. L’histoire des sciences est riche d’exemples dans lesquels des
    phénomènes de faible ampleur ont conduit à de profondes remises en cause des certitudes
    Notre association était bien représentée avec des présentations de Jean-Paul Bibérian, JeanLuc Paillet, Philippe Hatt, Fabrice David, Jacques Ruer
    De l’autre côté du Monde les japonais continuent à progresser. Je vous laisse découvrir les
    dernières nouvelles et les surprises en visitant le site de Clean Planet remis à jour récemment :
    Bien à vous,
    Jacques Ruer
    Président SFSNMC
    Email : [email protected]

    And in translation...

    Letter N ° 27

    IWAHLM 14 and news from Japan

    Jacques Ruer


    As I reported in the previous letter the conference baptized

    International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen Loaded Metals N ° 14 was held in Assisi

    from Sunday August 29 to Wednesday September 1.

    Unlike past editions, this conference brought together only 25 participants because of

    limitations related to the pandemic. All the participants were European but it was possible

    to follow the conference by internet. 20 papers were presented. Number of

    people present was reduced but it was a great pleasure to find contact again

    physical with well-known colleagues. The friendly atmosphere also owes a lot to

    the organization of our devoted and sympathetic Italian friends.

    Oral presentations can be listened to on YouTube- see above for link

    The conference abstracts booklet is also available, but not all papers have

    not been presented:

    During this conference it was possible to have news of the European project

    CleanHME. Professor Konrad Czerski and his team from the University of Sczcecin in

    Poland reported on particle accelerator experiments which show that the

    probability of reactions between deuterons is improved by screening the electrons which

    surround the nuclei as well as by quantum resonance phenomena of the nuclei


    Several presentations focused on montages that spontaneously generate

    electricity. Two different electrodes, one of which is charged with hydrogen, are separated by a

    low gas thickness. A weak current flows between the electrodes, a phenomenon of weak

    amplitude without much practical application for the moment but which is unexplained and deserves

    why we are interested. The history of science is rich in examples in which

    small-scale phenomena have led to deep questioning of the certainties


    Our association was well represented with presentations by Jean-Paul Bibérian, JeanLuc Paillet, Philippe Hatt, Fabrice David, Jacques Ruer

    On the other side of the world, the Japanese continue to progress. I let you discover the

    latest news and surprises by visiting the recently updated Clean Planet website:

    We have increased the number of outside directors and part-time corporate auditors to strengthen corporate governance. | CLEAN PLANET Inc.


    Jacques Ruer

    President SFSNMC

    That seems like a lot for a surface treatment. How far down is it supposed to go? It is not much by volume.

    It's mostly Micron-sized particles, and as you know the toxicity of Iron is low, much lower than that of copper. For many years I have been putting copper foil into the joints of outdoor wooden structures to prevent rot, which often begins at points where steel fixings are nearby. And you may have noticed how much weed and barnacles love steel-hulled boats -they are not there just for the ride.

    As for 'how far down' it seems that is stays in the top 2.5 meters of water for a long time in which it is mostly incorporated into the metabolism of phytoplankton which in turn become fish-food. Much of the rest remains in what is called the Eckman spiral in the top 100 meters. Since it is food for phytoplankton there is no point in using bigger stuff that would just sink

    Part of the technique is that the iron is only put into locations where deep-water gyres (and the Eckman spiral patterns) mix and distribute the iron over vast volumes of water - really it is being dropped into a blender, not a pond - big difference It is never part of the plan to drop iron into inshore water.. For more on gyres see the excellent and short National Geographic map and descriptions.

    Edo and his colleagues have performed a very difficult trick, with considerable success. Taking a complex and incomplete subject like the Standard Model of atomic structure and simplifying and clarifying it was never going to be easy but providing visuals of many elements using the SAM method can help to make nuclear physics easier to understand.. Nuclear structures are directly and causally connected to the spectrum of gamma rays for example.

    While the SAM system doesn't attempt toexplain everything - and personally I think its 'lightweight' treatment of spin and parity is a gap that could be explained more carefully, it does show the structure for all elements and isotopes, and show how nuclear reactions can be visualised in 3D.

    According to Edo the book lays the foundation for more research, both theoretical and potentially practical, the SAM group obviously takes all this very seriously. Personally I found it -while very clearly written - a very dense read, and found it best to pick it up for an hour or so and then let it 'sink in' a bit - often going back to read the same section several times. As somebody who is more engineer and chemist than nuclear scientist I did find it a relief to find clear explanations of what goes on 'on the bench' though I cannot of course vouch for all of them -the possibilities are immense.

    So how do I rate it? Marks out of 10. Clarity of thought and explanation 9, Helpful illustrations, 9+, validity of theory 5 (I'm not the best judge). Worth some time and study? Yes- definitely.


    Curtis Press are also to be congratulated on having the skill and courage to produce a high quality 268 page book with many graphics (in colour too) that

    The book is available from:-

    The Nature of the Atom: An Introduction to the Structured Atom Model by J. E. Kaal, J. A. Sorensen, A. Otte, and J. G. Emming | Curtis Press