Posts by Zephir_AWT

    A simple argument that hydrino, i.e. "small hydrogen" may exist This paper discusses a possible existence of subquantum levels and hydrino, i.e.  "small hydrogen", which may have been created during the Big Bang before formation of normal hydrogen.


    Author of the study J.Va’vra from Standford university argues, that spontaneous transition from normal level to small level is unlikely because of a large electron energy difference in both states (254.16 or 510.17 keV). But the small hydrogen may be formed differently; for example, using a relativistic electron with a correct wavelength latching on a proton. Such condition may have occurred during the Big Bang, or during other very energetic and luminous events in the Universe.


    One could try to use a high intensity electron beam of precisely tuned energy, and look for a sign of e-p bonded state formation. If the small hydrogen is formed, it would appear as a neutral object from some distance. Such object might be able to enter the boron nucleus in boron-based detectors, destabilize the nucleus, which may produce alpha particle, which then would be detected. However, this process might turn out to be very unlikely because the small hydrogen does have a fairly large size compared to nucleus size, and it has an electric dipole moment, which may prevent entry into the nucleus.

    Hydrino theory is already 33 years old - and this is first time it's emerged in mainstream journal publication, I guess. The existence of hydrino looks controversial even for me, who collects various anomalies and controversial topics. Before some time I started to speculate that phenomena which Randell Mills attributes to cold fusion are actually overunity effects analogous to cavitation heaters and magnetic motors. This aspect various observations (like the overunity of Langmuir atom hydrogen discharge and let say Chernetski and Papp's plasma generators) would have common with Randell Mills process. From both quantum mechanics, both dense aether model follows, that subquantum energy levels of hydrogen should be indeed possible, but they would require pumping of energy into it, i.e. hydrino - even if it could somehow exists - would be metastable. And its formation wouldn't definitely serve as a mean of energy production, neither as an explanation of dark matter and another phenomena, which Randell Mills routinely attributes to hydrino.


    The principal reason here is the omnipresent vacuum noise (so-called Zero Point Energy or ZPE) which leads into degeneracy pressure, i.e. the fact that vacuum behaves like water surface filled by Brownian noise, which wiggles with small particles and objects and takes them apart. This wiggling is for example the reason, why liquid helium doesn't freeze even at zero Kelvin temperature, i.e Zero Point. The finite diameter and fundamental quantum state of hydrogen atoms (and another atoms indeed) is thus result of equilibrium between degeneracy pressure and attractive Coulomb force. The same quantum noise would also prohibit the collapse of matter into singularities predicted by general relativity - so I believe that black holes behave merely like very dense stars with physical surface blurred with space-time up to higher or lower degree, which mostly depends on the speed of their rotation.


    Unfortunately the situation is not so simple and more detailed analysis will be still required. From dense aether model also follows that concentration of energy at some place makes vacuum more dense like soap foam shaken inside closed vessel. The increased vacuum density slows down the propagation of energy (it's common mechanism for both relativistic phenomena like gravitational lensing, both quantum mechanic phenomena, like pilot wave and probability function). In addition, increased vacuum density makes forces (including Coulomb force) weaker, because it essentially works like space-time dilatation (and distance increasing) for them. The situation gets even more complicated at the proximity of surfaces of normal matter, preferably within narrow cracks and cavities of metals, which would stabilize these subquantum levels even more, because the surface of refracting bodies also shield portion of ZPE noise.


    So that maybe - just maybe - some of sub quantum states could be actually more stable, thus allowing some subquantum atoms and/or even their compounds actually exist. Other than that the spectral lines attributed to hydrino in Randell Mills experiments could be also manifestation of Auger transitions, so that definite proof of hydrino is waiting for its publication.

    Phill Ball is notorious cold fusion pathoskeptic - you cannot teach old dog new manners. In this way or another, the above study was crippled: it did use thin wires instead of palladium rods and it even didn't manage to achieve sufficient load of deuterium: way too many apparent mistakes for being taken seriously.


    Maybe even someone is intentionally wagging the dog here: I don't trust Google in these matters at all.

    Electrolyzer used in tests. The study is very sparse of experimental details. It's not for example clear from article presented, which experimental arrangement they did use. Fleischman and Pons never used thin wires as a cathode, because their fusion did run as a bulk effect. On the right it's one of their cells with cathode bent and partially molted due to fusion effect - it has nearly 10 millimeters in diameter.


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    From original article:

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    We were able to reproducibly sustain high hydrogen loadings in palladium (x = 0.81 ± 0.02) when we subjected a purpose-built solid-state electrochemical cell to a modest electrochemical driving force of −1 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)


    Sorry, but this is too low concentration of hydrogen: according to Hagelstein and Kubre loadings at least 0.9 are required for successful onset of cold fusion. Hagelstein & all demonstrated it quite reproducibly. The achieving of such concentration requires many days of electrolysis - one long experiment is much better than dozens of quick ones as the patience pays here more than everywhere else.

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    The Nature study looks credible for me from this perspective - but it did find exactly what Hagelstein & all also have found: load x = 0.8 hydrogen means zero result. Back to labs please: we need more actual work and less propaganda...

    How does it work?


    Large amounts of hydrogen is produced using an electro-hydraulic shock applied to plates of aluminum submerged in water. The electrohydraulic shock continuously removes the oxide film which forms on the surface of aluminum plates. The electro-hydraulic shock burns at a temperature hotter than the surface of the sun and creates an immense pressure of over 100,000 atmospheres. This takes place at a micro level. This shock is applied to the plates of aluminum to continuously destroy the oxide film, allowing for a set of 16 different physical and chemical processes to take place. This simultaneously decomposes the water molecules and eats away at the aluminum plates, releasing the hydrogen. The hydrogen generator runs at temperatures no hotter than 150 degrees Fahrenheit and is completely safe.


    A patent has been issued on the key revolutionary processes used to produce hydrogen at incredibly efficient rates.


    What are the inputs?


    The key inputs are aluminum and water: these inputs drive the generator and also the 16 physical and chemical processes. There is a small amount of a chemical catalyst. The electricity needed is 50 watts to 150 watts (per hour).


    Where do the inputs come from?


    The generator uses tap water. The 50 to 150 watts of electricity can come from a small solar panel, a mini wind turbine, a wall socket or a self-charging battery similar to those used in cars. The aluminum and chemical catalyst can be changed every few days to every few months. This depends on the size of the generator. A generator used to power a house or a factory would need an aluminum change about every two months while a generator used in car would need aluminum change every 600 miles. The change can be done either by the user or a technician.


    What happens to the Aluminum?


    Used aluminum can be recycled. This will further reduce the operating cost.

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    "TinselKoala" is a scam buster and a damn good one. Want to bet this test will never happen? These scams always operate the same way and in the last ten years there have been at least a dozen prominent ones to separate marks from their money.


    He is nut, who has no idea, what's going on. That giant Lexan model was made just because of this test - it has no other purpose.

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    Holmlid's recent work also raises the possibility that muons may be generated in cold fusion


    Holmlid himself says, he does merely hot fusion. Cold fusion arises during low-dimensional collisions within crystals, but Holmlid initiates them with laser pulses, and laser light is also low-dimensional. It's too high concentration of energy for poor atoms, sorta overshot - and instead of fusion their nuclei fragment itself into pions and muons. Muons aren't definitely welcomed product of cold fusion (despite that they have many potential uses, for example as a catalyst for hot fusion), because their generation indicates waste of input energy (like every particle formation during fusion).

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    I am certain is is not useful to devolve to Kepler and the Bohr atom, for many reasons well discussed in physics since the "ultraviolet catastrophe" beginning around 1900.


    Well, if nothing else it helped me to realize the mistake above pointed. Bohr and Kepler models can still apply once we introduce pilot ("wake") wave for electron encircling the atom. Such a pilot wave will start to interfere with itself around atom and the wave-like flabelliform orbital is born. But electrons itself are still orbiting atoms like pin point particles: their orbitals just delineate most frequent paths for them. It's worth to note that Randell Mills theory represents pretty consequential return to Bohr model.

    I don't think that Mills must be completely wrong - there can be less or more spherical shadows of metastable subquantum levels beneath fundamental s- d- orbitals close to atom nuclei, for dense clusters of atoms or for atoms inside narrow cavities - sorta like dark matter/energy of quantum mechanics. Smoke only rarely comes without fire. Unfortunately XUL spectral lines pushed by Mills as a proof of his theory can be explained by Auger electrons and direct hydrino evidence is inconclusive so far.


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    Mills has a bad habit to tell something is wrong even if it looks the same... I would suggest that Mills' inability to get his ideas published comes from his ignorance


    Well, exactly. The liberal frontiers have tendency to disagree mutually even when they actually agree each other. They're negativistic each other like particles of dark matter. They tend to exaggerate their ideas in an effort to give them more merit than they deserve and they present them as more fundamental / omnipresent, than they really are. Mills and his theory/software is so full of it. But nature doesn't work so. Even the finding of pile dark matter wouldn't invalidate predictions of relativity within its well established validity scope (we can spot this scope easily, as it applies to less or more spherical bodies - the more the shape of object deviates from sphere, the more it also tends to deviate from general relativity).


    In dense aether model the physical theories act like low-dimensional reductionist onion slices of hyperdimensional reality. The physicists are pushing multiverse model without even realizing, they invented it already in form of their own theories. The fact that ripples don't spread at the water surface in regular circles for large/small energies and/or large/small distances still doesn't invalidate fact, that at average distance scales they're routinely doing so. So that we can have simplistic reductionist Maxwell or special relativity theories based on such spherical spreading for average distance scales and energies and another theories for their spreading under more extreme conditions. These more advanced theories would apply elsewhere and they wouldn't interfere classical theories too much. In adition, from dense aether model follows, the more distant we get from scope of general relativity and quantum mechanics, the more models and perspectives we could apply to observable reality at the same moment, because this reality gets hyperdimensional and individual theories will become low-dimensional projections of it (Einstein's lensing comes on mind here).


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    " is nonsense - may be a typo: "inner shell orbits are supposed to move faster


    Of course I do many typos, but according to Kepler law the electrons should move the faster, the father from atom nuclei are.

    This is also why the relativist mass affects gold but not lightweight atoms.

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    Possibly related to this, an examination of "heavy electron" theory, will show that generally mass variation for electrons or "effective electrons" is vectorial, that is an increased effective mass in one direction is accompanied by decreases in at least one of the other spatial dimensions.


    If we take a look at pilot wave, we realize that it deforms vacuum only in direction of particle actual motion, that means that in another directions the vacuum remains relatively flat. The perceived/observed inertia of electrons would thus correspond the deform of vacuum observed from particular direction. The effective mass of electron doesn't decrease in perpendicular directions - except the fact, that increased vacuum density makes the rest mass of electron relatively lower as a whole. What de-Broglie wave affects instead is the projection of particle spin into direction of particle motion: the half-integer spin of electron changes gradually into integer spin of boson - in another words, the fast moving particle gets widespread and it gradually changes into a charge wave.


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    Can we argue that it is nearly the same mass gain, for modest velocities as a percent of C (electron at say 10%, or ~0.5% mass increase and proton at way under 0.01% or ~zero mass increase) likely to be seen in many CF / LENR experiments often involving very short range accelerations?


    Yep, any acceleration of particle ads another undulation to its pilot wave - actually the more, the higher derivatives of motion gets. In my theory the cold fusion results from Astroblaster effect during sharp collisions of multiple atoms along single line, during which the orbitals at the place of collision get literally shaken and their electrons gain high relativistic mass for a brief moment of time.

    Heavy electrons play an important role in Widom-Larsen theory of cold fusion and they're simply normal electrons involving relativistic effects. Dense aether model handles space-time like dynamic foam of density fluctuations of hypothetical ultradense gas, similar to supercritical fluid. Particles which are moving across this foam make that foam temporarily more thick and dense like being surrounded of dense atmosphere or coat of vacuum fluctuations. Quantum mechanics handles this situation by so-called pilot wave concept, i.e. wake wave of vacuum undulated by particle moving through it. You can imagine it like wave formed above fish floating beneath water surface. The space-time deformed by pilot wave gets literally more dense for light waves and thick for particles. Note that pilot wave slows down light and speed of time for particle in motion in exactly the way, that the resulting speed of light would remain invariant - in this way the quantum mechanics plays well with special relativity. In dense aether model the speed dependent component of inertia, i.e. relativistic mass of particle represents simply mass of pilot wave which surrounds it. The faster the particle is moving, the more deformed space-time around it gets, the more dense the pilot wave looks like and the more the vacuum deformed by it adds to the effective mass of particle.


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    The Widom-Larsen theory thus considers, that the electrons are moving fast, so that they get heavy. These heavy electrons, i.e. electrons of high relativistic mass also play a role in many chemical and physical properties of heavy elements, the atoms of which are so large, that the electrons in outer orbital shells are forced to revolve them at high speed. Because such an electrons are thus more massive, their orbitals get shrunken, which brings a number of anomalies into periodic table of elements..

    Aether Wave Theory based on dense (luminiferous) aether model handles vacuum as a sort of dense gas or supercritical fluid, inside of which particles wiggle like pollen grains in water, being shaken and kept in neverending motion by vacuum fluctuations. That means, if we would constrain the motion of some particle into a smaller volume, it would resist its destiny by more intensive wiggling - so called degeneracy pressure according to uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics. This explains, why we cannot have subquantum states (despite that energy of electron would undoubtedly decrease with approaching to atom nuclei due to Coulomb force): the vacuum fluctuations don't allow shrinking of electron orbitals and they would immediately expand them back like elastic bubble or balloon.


    In this aspect the dense aether model essentially contradicts the Mills theory, as Randell Mills believes, that with shrinking size of electron orbital its energy only increases due to Coulomb force so that the hydrino formation would lead into release of energy. Whereas from dense aether model follows, that even without atom nuclei at the center the electron orbital would be immediately expanded back from subquantum state to its fundamental quantum state. So that the energy of Coulomb field would get compensated with degeneracy pressure nearly completely and the formation of hydrino (even if it could be somehow stabilized for example by the Gauss non-radiating condition) would be actually endothermic.


    This is also the reason, why I don't believe that hydrino forms dark matter: it would decay back into hydrogen already.

    Regarding the formal results of Mills theory, many of them apparently works - but we shouldn't forget, that let say epicycle theory also worked well for predictions of eclipses and conjunctions - despite it was based on quite opposite (actually topologically inverted) perspective. Similar holographic duality exists in physics for example between string and loop quantum gravity theories, which look seemingly very differently (the former one is based on vibrating strings like quantum mechanical orbitals, whereas this later one on bubbles of spin foam in similar way like the orbitals of Mills theory). So that Mills theory is merely holographically dual to quantum mechanics (i.e. topologically inverted in momentum space-time), once we try to imagine, how the quantum mechanics would look like for subquantum states: it would converge to spherical Rydberg orbitals - just much smaller ones, than the real Rydberg orbitals. So that in many aspects Mills theory can still provide correct predictions, just in temporal momentum space instead of real one as it has sign of time dimension inverted. It's sorta epicycle model of quantum mechanics.

    I presume, that everyone understands, that Mills theory cannot be compatible with double slit experiment (despite all its efforts), because the flabelliform shapes of electron orbitals (which Mills theory denies) are just spherical analogy of flabelliform patterns of double slit experiment - and they even result by very same mechanism (the diffraction of pilot wave). That doesn't mean, that non-radiation condition doesn't apply and that some aspects of Mills theory cannot be relevant for overunity phenomena - but Randell Mills seems to want to have non-radiating orbitals everywhere, despite it's not apparent, why exactly. The existence of hydrino requires to have them only for sub-quantum energy levels, which quantum mechanics cannot describe anyway.


    Another question is, why Mills needs to have spherical orbitals and nonradiating conditions at all, once he assumes, that hydrino is the most stable form of hydrogen? The nonradiating condition applies for forbidden energy levels, which are metastable. But hydrino is supposed to be stable - or its production wouldn't release an energy. In another words, Mills theory looks confused for me and it's full of logical inconsistencies. Math results of theory are important, but we shouldn't overlook the forest for the trees.

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    perhaps you are an expert on quantum entanglement (I have my doubts). Even so, that will be QE as defined conventionally in terms of spacetime

    I'm expert to dense aether model only and this model defines entanglement as a process/state of phase synchronizing of pilot waves.


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    how space & time can emerge from QM entanglement


    I'm not even required to read about it, because I can immediately spot a circular reasoning: quantum entanglement cannot establish itself without time and space.