Glow discharge apparatus and methods providing prerequisites and testing for nuclear reactions
In the present invention significant safety control of such solid state nuclear reactions can be increased by using thinner wires or thinner structures of the metal in question. Pressures, temperatures, and mobilities can be cut down in fusion lattice metal by cutting down FE lattice pressure by releasing FEs rapidly from the metal.
Because of increased pressures available, under the teachings of the present invention, energy generation can be produced in smaller and thinner wires and films of the FLM. This allows much higher rates of control over the cold fusion reactions such that safe shutdown procedures may be employed thereby avoiding any chance of uncontrollable runaway reactions.
The present invention allows operation at much higher temperatures, on the order of 900 °C by virtue of the use of thin film sheets or fabrications of palladium metal. The melting point of palladium is 1544°C. By virtue of using gas discharge in the present reaction, thin films of the fusion lattice metal may be used. Thin films are able to radiate heat by blackbody radiation and convection or forced gas cooling and to equilibrate quickly due to low thermal mass. Being thinner, the whole FLM can equilibrate to temperatures of the surrounding environment at a rate ΔT°/sec which increases as a function of the inverse proportion of the FLM thickness or radius and proportional to thermal diffusivity of the FLM material. These attributes could not be provided in an aqueous based reactor. The present invention provides, therefore, for the use of smaller amounts of FLM to achieve cold fusion then required for electrochemical approaches with higher faster heat emissivity per unit of FLM material.
The present invention does not experience the problems of surface fouling for two separate reasons. First, ions of the FEs are implanted at a low energy into the fusion lattice metal through use of glow discharge. This is because the FE atoms have been ionized in the discharge dark space over the metal surface and have picked up energies in the range of slightly over 0 ev to as high as 3 Kev and are accelerated in that electric field as is well understood in the art of glow discharge. This allows these accelerated ions, some of which may be recombined with electrons which arrive at the cathode surface as neutral atoms, to implant themselves into the metal surface to a depth of a number of atomic layers. Being light elements the ions travel at high velocities and have high penetration ability. This means that even if the surface of the element was fouled with some coating of non-FE absorbed atoms, the fusion elements would be able to pierce this layer. Secondly, allowing for a small amount of noble gas (i.e., neon or argon) within the gas mixture in the reactor canister provides a small amount of sputtering. Such sputtering keeps FLM surfaces relatively free of adatoms.
Under the teachings of the present invention a thorough cleaning of the fusion elements and of the system components eliminates harmful activity or deposition of impurities from the system.