ASTOUNDED - Atypical Spheromak Triggering Of Unambiguous Nuclear Derived Energy Discharges (Rossi's Mirror Effect Reactor and more!)

  • Classic light bulbs run at 2700 and don't melt too, due to convection cooling...

    A typical filament runs at 2550C but it is a long way from the glass. Rossi's plasma is in a 0.8 mm diameter tube. Rossi probably used quartz first: he reported he had to find another material.


  • @Director


    I have always found the work of Bostick interesting and I follow the advances of MHD however I still fail to see how EVOs (spheromaks) can be created in subsurface nanocracks and be related to the NAEs in a LENR, say F&P, experiment. Could you expand on that? Thank you.

  • Hello Julian,


    I'll do my very best to provide you with a satisfactory answer. If you would like for me to go into more detail on any specific point or if I need to explain something more coherently, please let me know.


    To start off, I think I need to provide a little background information. An EVO is a toroidal cluster of electrons and much heavier positive ions (anything from hydrogen to xenon) swirling in opposite directions that has achieved a variable level of geometric and energetic stability. The electrons typically move along the outer surface of the torus and the positive ions are located in the interior. The type of EVOs Kenneth Shoulders created form whenever an adequate quantity of electrons are bunched together, and, usually in motion. The motion of the electrons (along with whatever positive ions are present) create a magnetic field that starts to induce these particles into forming loops. These are Bostick's vortex filaments - coils of electrons and positive ions. In Kenneth Shoulders typical systems, the fast high voltage pulse applied to a sharp tip of wire is sufficient to produce an "ecton" explosion at the narrow end. The charged electrons, protons, and other ions obtain enough kinetic motion, which translates into magnetic field intensity, to not only form filaments but to reconnect at their ends forming toroids. In a typical "hot fusion" big science spheromak generator, external magnetic fields are used (for example permanent magnets or solenoids) to assist in the reconnection. One point worth noting here is that these larger spheromak shaped toroids are generally far less energy dense than the small high density charge clusters of Kenneth Shoulders. As a rule, smaller plasmoids are more energy AND mass dense per unit volume.


    Now, the next bit of background information I need to provide is the phenomenon of Surface Plasmon Polaritons. I found them very mysterious until a couple of months ago I spent some time getting to the bottom of what they really were. Basically, the first word, surface, means they are centered at the interface of a conductive metal and a dielectric (water, air, vacuum). The second word, plasmon, describes collective undulations of electrons that can bob up and down like waves at such a dielectric interface - sort of like ripples of water on the surface of a pond. Now, the third word is critical: polaritons. This world represents the combination of a plasmon (ripple of electrons on a surface with associated magnetic and electric fields) with a trigger of some kind that excites them: like a rock thrown on the surface of the pond. However, with SPPs, the triggers are not rocks but namely charged particle impacts (electrons, protons, and ions) and photons. If any of these impact the metal-dielectric interface, ripples of electrics will roll across the surface. The reason for charged particles to cause this is obvious: their charge will manipulate the plasmons (undulations of electrons). However, it's the magnetic and electric fields of the photon that produce undulations as well. I'll go into this further in a minute, but I should say here that EVOs are probably the equivalent of shooting a .45 caliber bullet into the pond: they contain charged particles that spray out in all directions upon destruction and produce a wide variety of photons: radio frequency, x-rays, etc.


    Normally, these undulations are fairly weak and dampen quickly as they spread out in a 360 degree pattern from the point of a charged particle or photon impact. But here is where things get fascinating: surface structures and features can immensely magnify the gentle ripples into powerful spikes. And this is highly engineerable: mainstream labs are coming up with all sorts of nano-structures that produce specific, often resonant, effects. A surface protrusion (imagine a little bump sticking up) will create a powerful upwards oscillation of the electrons composing the plasmon undulation. Imagine an ice pick of electrons projecting upwards. The opposite structure, a pit, can create a different formation. Additionally, a powerful surface plasmon polariton can form between different sized nano-particles, for example, a large spherical particle and one of much smaller diameter. Finally, I've read the most powerful amplification comes from intersecting cracks on a surface, at the center of a Y or X shaped crack.


    (Side note: the electric field amplification effect on a sharp tipped cathode is due to a surface plasmon polariton process creating the conditions for a powerful outburst that forms the EVO.)


    Now, before we move to how these form in LENR systems, we need to talk about why we even want them: how they induce nuclear reactions. They can do so via multiple routes. For one, for a small input EVOs, including the heavy ions they contain, can be accelerated to high speeds; the protons they contain can hit targets with MeV of energy. This could produce traditional thermonuclear fusion upon impact. Additionally, there are multiple conditions in which nuclear reactions can happen inside of EVOs/Spheromaks before impact on a target, often when the EVO is being compressed. The high velocity flows in their structure can be disrupted and high speed ions can collide. This can produce particle emissions that spray out (electrons always seem to be shooting out of EVOs which was proven with Shoulders Electron Pin Hole Camera) including copious x-rays. Upon hitting a target, when an EVO destroys itself, even more powerful particles and x-rays are emitted. These can induce Surface Plasmon Polaritons. Now, what's interesting, is that there are researchers who claim that the production of SPPs on a hydrogenated material can induce nuclear reactions both by production of "heavy electrons" that can borrow through the electron shells of atoms and induce nuclear reactions (sort of like muon induced fusion) and the release of "slow neutrons" with a wide "cross section" that allows them to perhaps induce isotopic shifting. Basically, there are a lot of ways both EVOs and SPPs (which I consider to be quasi-EVOs or quasi spheromaks) can induce nuclear effects.


    In an electrolytic system, the most likely method by which EVOs would be produced is by fracto-emission. As the Pd becomes highly loaded, very brittle hydride layers can form. If temperature, pressure, or perhaps even cell voltage is changed, I expect that cracks can form when mechanical stress causes fractures in the lattice. When such a fracture happens, electrons can be emitted. Fracto-emission is a common process: if you crack open a rock with a sledge hammer you can sometimes see sparks popping out. Also, during and after earthquakes, ball lightning and strange lights are often seen. Kenneth Shoulders thought that the electrons emitted from hydride layers can form EVOs. Basically, this is likely a form of charge separation, similar to how you can generate x-rays from pulling on a reel of packaging tape. There's a potential difference that develops that can lead to a discharge.


    Once an EVO is discharged from one wall of the fracture, it could slam into the other side, and induce nuclear reactions via any of the methods mentioned above. If the reaction is powerful enough, additional damage could be inflicted on the lattice which would result in more fracto-emission. You could end up with cycles of SPPs traveling along amplifying surface features and EVOs jumping from wall to wall creating a self-sustained reaction.


    There's a really good article I read a few years ago about a team that cryogenically froze metal hydrides (titanium hydride if I remember correctly) and then quickly brought it back up to room temperature. They recorded neutrons and other emissions that were likely due to thermal stresses resulting in fractures. I don't think they used the term EVO, but I think they may have mentioned fracto-emission.


    Edward Storms has actually posted a theory about how cracks might be the NAE of LENR systems. Shoulders actually claimed that he was probably on the top of the list of all the LENR researchers he knew (he mentions this in the interview with John Hutchison). I'm very confident that fracto-emission and SPP effects (amplifying electric fields to create regions of high charge density) are the reason that cracks are a likely NAE. In fact, there are characteristic EVO "boreholes" in SEM photographs of electrode samples from electrolytic systems. There are such photographs in Shoulders papers that are published online.


    When it comes to gas phase system, like Rossi's systems, I'm convinced the production and utilization of EVOs is his true catalyst. Every step of the way, he has incorporated features into his systems that would produce the conditions for EVO production. I could go on and on about this, but I've covered most of it in my earlier posts. But just a few of several EVO generation methods are his direct electrical discharges through his carbonyl (spikey) fuel, radio frequency generators, three phase rotating magnetic fields, etc. These EVOs may induce LENR before they even strike due to the electrons they spray out and x-rays that are generated. Upon impact, they can induce nuclear reactions directly via a number of different routes OR simply produce SPPs that may induce nuclear reactions.


    I consider ASTOUNDED states (Atypical Spheromak Triggering Of Unambiguous Nuclear Derived Energy Discharges) to be the equivalent of a twelve gauge shotgun in home defense. Such a weapon is probably overkill (a puny little .22 revolver can kill someone with a well placed shot), but you are virtually guaranteed a one shot kill. It may not be as elegant as using a precisely tuned laser to generate SPPs for LENR, but the results are powerful and the excess heat will be plain as day.


    I hope this helps. I've been spending countless hours every day reading papers for the past few months ever since I started to connect the dots between EVOs, LENR, various free energy devices, and other exotic technologies. Right now, I've been up for a very long time so I'm a little groggy. If there are any points you want to discuss please let me know. I'm happy to communicate with anyone who wants to talk about these issues.

  • Here are two papers on the doping of nano-diamond with various elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, lithium, and magnesium. The second paper is especially interesting, because magnesium doped nano-diamonds seem to have benefits over lithium doped nano-diamonds.




    http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/pt/d…mas-martin-PhD-thesis.pdf


    Lithium oxygen termination as a negative electron affinity surface on diamond: a computational and photoemission study.




    https://arxiv.org/pdf/1505.06410.pdf


    Extremely high negative electron affinity of diamond via magnesium adsorption
    K. M. O’Donnell,1, ∗ M. T. Edmonds,2 A. Tadich,3 L. Thomsen,3 A. Stacey,4 A. Schenk,5 C. I. Pakes,5 and L. Ley6, 5
    1Department of Physics, Astronomy and Medical Radiation Science,
    Curtin University, Bentley, Western Australia 6102, Australia
    2School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia
    3Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia
    4School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Melbourne Victoria 3010, Australia
    5Department of Physics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3086, Australia
    6Lehrstuhl f¨ur Laserphysik, Friedrich-Alexander-Universit¨at Erlangen-N¨urnberg, Staudtstr. 1, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
    (Dated: June 23, 2015)
    We report large negative electron affinity (NEA) on diamond (100) using magnesium adsorption
    on a previously oxygen-terminated surface. The measured NEA is up to (−2.01 ± 0.05) eV, the
    largest reported negative electron affinity to date. Despite the expected close relationship between
    the surface chemistry of Mg and Li species on oxygen-terminated diamond, we observe differences
    in the adsorption properties between the two. Most importantly, a high-temperature annealing step
    is not required to activate the Mg-adsorbed surface to a state of negative electron affinity. Diamond
    surfaces prepared by this procedure continue to possess negative electron affinity after exposure to
    high temperatures, air and even immersion in water.

  • I quite agree with the theory of EVOs you said. If you can experiment or DIY an ECAT QX then that's even better. thank you

  • Director,


    What kind of director are you? At least not for a Nuclear Physics Research Institute, I presume.


    I see that you refer to Edward Storms above. I suppose you mean Edmund Storms.

    (Yes, I know you where a little groggy!)


    Here is an Ed thread:

    Edmund Storms: Q&A ON THE NAE


    Since Ed's LENR experiments seemed to indicate that anomalous heat was produced this should be due to a a nuclear reaction, he concluded.

    And this had to be a nuclear reaction that produced no hard radiation, a hard nut indeed.


    So Ed conjured up an entirely new animal, the Hydroton. What the Hydroton is supposed to be and do you can read at the start of another Ed thread:

    Edmund Storm theory proposal : Cracks, Hydroton, and common sense.


    Sadly, I must say that the Hydroton lives in the same world as Randell Mills' Hydrino does: the fantasy world.


    I know that Ed sometimes visits (or att least used to visit) this site so I can offer a small consolation if you reads this:

    Every new theory, even one that eventually will turn out to be correct, can to a certain extent be regarded as a fantasy.


    However, everybody is free to have his own opinion about this extent.

  • Director,


    What kind of director are you? At least not for a Nuclear Physics Research Institute, I presume.

    "Director" is a nice, authoritive-sounding name.

    In practice, however, a director of reading and writing, primarily, based on past discussions.

    The sheeple are easily directed to the favorite flavor of the moment, and enamoured by the ones apparently knowledgeable in that zeitgeist, however, so maybe that counts for something.

  • This video from MFMP covers some of the same ground as the Director.

    Mining diamonds with LION.

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    • Official Post

    Yes. Variously called 'Erzions' (I think) by the Russians, and 'Meshugganons' (by Edward Teller). An unknown particle that leaves zig-zag tracks.


    https://arxiv.org/ftp/astro-ph/papers/0106/0106218.pdf


    And:


    Bazhutov, Y.N. Erzion discovery in cosmic rays and its possible great role in nature in framework of Erzion

    model of cold nuclear transmutation. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La
    Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy. p. 269.


    Also:


    http://www.iccf19.com/_system/…/poster/PS04_Bazhutov.pdf


    And:


    Matsumoto, T., 'Nattoh' model for cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 532.

  • I quite agree with the theory of EVOs you said. If you can experiment or DIY an ECAT QX then that's even better. thank you


    I appreciate you reading my posts and your support. I'd love to do some experimentation. There are a huge number of different devices and configurations that could be built and tested to either produce LENR effects, cold electricity, isotopic shifting and transmutations, etc. In all sincerity, I believe that high powered LENR (producing very high levels of excess heat) isn't too difficult to achieve if you keep a few principles in mind. However, there would be a number of obstacles for me to overcome if I were to perform any experiments myself. To be blunt, I'd need funding (not a fortune), space to do the testing (I'm suffering from a lack of space right now), and technical hands on know how to help with fabrication and the electronics. Basically, I'd rather work with a small team than by myself. If I were able to work with such a team, willing to perform daily tests in a similar manner to me356, I'm convinced that copious excess heat and self-sustained operation could be achieved rapidly. Or, if such a team existed elsewhere, I'd be more than willing to offer my thoughts, suggestion, and advice. But the truth is that there's a LOT of information from a WIDE variety of sources to go through before all the connections will start forming in your mind. The first step is for people to study the various literature about EVOs (including Russian literature about micro-ball lightning, strange radiation, ecton events, the work of Kenneth Shoulders, macro-scale spheromaks, the cold current tubes/capacitors of T.H. Moray, the magnetically quenched spark gaps of Nikola Tesla, etc) so they can then apply the principles to LENR systems. From there, for excess heat production, the steps are to prepare your fuel optimally, create conditions for EVO formation, and finally to direct these EVOs where you want them to go.

  • Does anyone have a clue what "strange radiation" is?


    Strange radiation is a term used by many researchers to explain emissions from electrical discharges (even arcs through columns of water with an electrolyte) that seem to penetrate reactor walls and produce emissions and/or tracks on film several feet away. If you study the work of Ken Shoulders, you will learn that EVOs come in various sizes, shades of white to black, and even occasionally different polarities. Strange radiation is simply a type of penetrating EVO that can move through matter with ease, while emitting x-rays and energetic particles.

  • This video from MFMP covers some of the same ground as the Director.

    Mining diamonds with LION.

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    Through the activation of external content, you agree that personal data may be transferred to third party platforms. We have provided more information on this in our privacy policy.


    A soliton has two spin currents counter-circulating in a confined space. Like any magnet, each of those currents produce a magnetic field, one of these currents produce a magnetic north pole and the other a magnetic south pole. The paired holes that is witnessed in the video is formed when the field lines of this solaton passes through the material. The field lines disrupt the nuclear structure of the material when the dipole magnetic field lines pass through the material.


    This is a magnetic dipole based soliton.


    F6.png


    from Two-Dimensional Solitons and Vortices in Linear and Nonlinear Lattice Potentials


    https://www.intechopen.com/boo…linear-lattice-potentials


    But this magnetic dipole based soliton can transform into a monopole based soliton or half soliton.


    https://phys.org/news/2017-01-…-optical-microcavity.html


    Physicists have observed spontaneous symmetry breaking in a solution formed in a optical microcavity, experimentors have demonstrated experimentally the emergence of spontaneous symmetry breaking in an ultrahigh-Q whispering-gallery microresonator. The Optical whispering gallery (WGW) microcavity is the structural form that the Surface Plasmon Polariton assumed in LENR. . These whispering gallery modes are analogous to the acoustic resonances in the whispering gallery in St. Paul Cathedral in London.


    A critical clue to the role of symmetry breaking in LENR is the observation that the application of an electrostatic field catalyzes spontaneous symmetry breaking in the WGW via the Kerr effect.


    1-physicistsob.jpg


    The application of an electrostatic field has been listed as a trigger of the LENR reaction in Rossi's patent. When this electrostatic field is applied, the WGW produces symmetry breaking which induces a energy transfer between a proton and a simultaneous decay in that proton via a symmetry breaking based entangled interface. This causes the counter rotating spin currents to merge into a single current, thereby forming a monopole.
    The rabbit tracks seen in the video are formed by this monopole based soliton.


    Its seems that the dipole magnetic field is strong enough to cause LENR effects but the monopole based soliton is far stronger and can produce far more energy than the dipole based soliton. Therefore the KERR effect LENR activation signal is critical in producing a powerful LENR effect.

    • Official Post

    Or, if such a team existed elsewhere, I'd be more than willing to offer my thoughts, suggestion, and advice. But the truth is that there's a LOT of information from a WIDE variety of sources to go through before all the connections will start forming in your mind.



    http://e-catworld.com/2018/01/…with-lion-new-mfmp-video/


    Director,


    With so many LENR theories floating around, I have been ignoring all of them the past few years while awaiting for the "one". Not saying this is it, but after watching BG's video, I took some time to read your theory, and how it ties so much together. As AA said, you explain things well.


    Hopefully this is not just the latest LENR fad theory that will be discarded and forgotten when the next comes along. I do however, find this Charge cluster, or Spheromak concept fascinating. It explains all the many manifestations of LENR, but then again, that may be all to convenient.


    We shall see, and in the meantime, I am tuned in.

  • "Director" is a nice, authoritive-sounding name.

    In practice, however, a director of reading and writing, primarily, based on past discussions.

    The sheeple are easily directed to the favorite flavor of the moment, and enamoured by the ones apparently knowledgeable in that zeitgeist, however, so maybe that counts for something.


    That post deserves a round of applause: it's the funniest joke I've heard in ages.


    EVOs are hardly the flavor of the moment. These same exact tightly confined, toroidal structures have been observed, investigated, and worked on for likely a century since the age of Nikola Tesla. Although described by different names and produced in various sizes (all the way from strange radiation to giant macro-scale spheromaks in military weapons used by the Strategic Defense Initiative), the same self-sustaining vortexes are at the heart of a huge portion of every exotic technology around.


    - The sudden electric discharges in Tesla's magnetically quenched high voltage spark gaps are a great environment for EVO formation. (Like in high powered military and hot fusion systems, magnetic fields add helicity to the moving bunches of electrons and ions allowing for loops to form. )


    - The conditions for EVO from a low work function semi-conductor are present in T.H. Moray's tubes that produced kilowatts of cold electrical output powering lights, motors, and a variety of loads.


    - E. V. Gray collected the radiant energy of EVO discharges and produced the same type of "cold current."


    - Sonofusion produces EVOs, because when a bubble is made charge separation takes place and when the bubble collapses an EVO is produced.


    - High efficiency "Brown's Gas" or HHO (look up the great work of George Wiseman at Eagle Research) is typically produced when highly conditioned electrodes are made with millions of tiny micro-spikes on their surface. Instead of using high current, these systems use short gaps between electrodes and no or very little electrolyte. The result is a massive amount of excess gas which has many anomalous properties.


    - Virtually every type of "cold fusion" or LENR system likely utilizes EVOs not only because the conditions for charge cluster formation are present but because their track marks can be found!


    - Kenneth Shoulders investigated EVOs for two decades and repeatedly observed transmutations, isotopic shifting, x-ray production, neutron production, and a wide array of effects. He actually performed experiments in which he struck an embrittled metal hydride target with an EVO producing a runaway, self sustaining effect he called wildfire.


    - The military and big budget hot fusion projects regularly use large scale spheromaks for a number of purposes including weaponized particle cannons, hot fusion reactors, thrusters, and perhaps even inertial damping and gravity manipulation.


    - Now, Luis Elizondo, who is working with Harold Puthoff, claims that his official pentagon program (which has been admitted as completely legitimate by multiple senators and the Department of Defense) claims that the unknown craft they've been investigating utilize different manifestations of one single unifying technology. Since Harold Puthoff worked with Shoulders for a decade and remained very good friends with him for an extended time, the connection to EVOs is obvious.


    I'd like to offer a statement that more accurately sums up the situation.


    EVOs are not the flavor of the moment; they are the central mechanism by which all advanced species - on Earth and elsewhere - utilize to bend the forces of the universe to their will.

  • The LION experiment is fascinating, but there's no doubt it can be massively enhanced.


    (Enhancements not necessarily in order of importance.)


    1) Buy appropriately sized micro or nano-diamonds that will be suitable for doping with whatever other elements you choose.


    2) Dope the nano-diamonds in an oxygen plasma until a sufficient level of doping has been achieved. Then apply an additional layer of n-type material such as lithium or magnesium. The exact methods of how to do this are available in patents and various documents available online. I would make sure to do your homework on the exact techniques you should utilize and the proper protocols: atmospheric pressures, temperatures, vacuum levels, plasma densities, and so forth.


    3) Degas some nickel powder, wire, rod, or sheet (whatever form you want to use) using heat and vacuum for multiple cycles. You might want oxygen on the diamond but not inside the nickel, palladium, titanium, etc.


    4) Consider if you want to pre-load the nickel with hydrogen before you proceed further. I say "consider" because the connection between the nickel and nano-diamond is IMPORTANT. I'm not sure if a connection between nickel hydride or pure nickel and the diamond would be more conductive. A search on the internet should tell us more about this matter. Instead of soaking the nickel in heavy water, I'd advise the use of a corona discharge to powerfully implant protons and/or deuterium into the metal lattice.


    5) Integrate the doped nano-diamonds into the nickel fuel. This could be accomplished via rolling, ball milling, or many other processes.


    6) Place the fuel charge along with a quantity of hydrogen or deuterium plus a few percent of a heavy gas such as argon or xenon. My guess is that hydrogen works as well as palladium, if you can force either of these gases into the nickel. Simply put, it's FAR easier to get palladium to absorb hydrogen than palladium. However, a source of highly kinetic atomic hydrogen or atomic deuterium atoms (such as a corona discharge) will quickly load nickel, creating a hydride layer. The small quantity of inert gases will come into play next.


    7) Use one or more methods to produce a plasma in the reactor. This can be with the use of a radio frequency generator antenna positioned inside the fuel cylinder, an alternating dc current applied to produce a glow discharge, a hot tungsten filament running through the center, or a high voltage multi-phase resistor coil providing a rotating field. The small percentage of inert gases will help accelerate the formation of and make the EVOs produced more stable -- in addition to producing even more x-rays.


    8) Place a conductive sheet around all or a portion of the reactor that you can connect to ground OR various polarities. If the fuel is loaded onto the inner walls of the reactor, the EVOs will be attracted to this highly conductive sheet.


    ---


    For the record, the above steps are very general, brief, and not detailed. There are many nuances and factors to consider about each of the above. However, following these basic ideas, I expect an enormous quantity of excess heat and even more EVOs to be produced. Some EVOs will emerge from the gaseous plasma, and others will emerge from self sustaining cycles and fracto-emission upon strikes on the embrittled fuel. Others will probably be emitted from the nano-diamonds! As always, the devil is in the details. Making a mistake in one area may cause problems in others. Doping nano-diamonds is an art that requires a learning curve.


    The good news is that I do NOT think Rossi utilized nano-diamonds in his earliest systems, such as those in the reactors that he admitted used radio frequency generators. In those systems, I think he simply used very well prepared (degasses and embrittled) nickel powder, lithium, perhaps a few other elements mixed in, and the radio frequency stimulation (along with his ordinary heating elements). My guess is that powerful effects will NOT require the use of nano-diamonds at all. However, they may act as powerful catalysts.

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