The LION experiment

  • LION - Tracks... Does this confirm the Kieth Fredericks Tachyon structure?

    Published on Sep 18, 2017


    Mining diamonds with LION

    Published on Jan 19, 2018


    LION - New kinds of material?

    Published on Jan 21, 2018


    LION and Schrödinger's C-at

    Published on Jan 22, 2018


    The possible irony in LION

    Published on Jan 23, 2018


    LION - Cannon

    Published on Jan 23, 2018


    LION - tractor beam

    Published on Jan 30, 2018






  • Thanks for posting this Axil. LION is a http://www.lookingforheat.com client, and uses our original 'Model T' reactor and fuel tubes. The 'fuel' which contains industrial diamonds bonded onto nickel pads and deuterium was developed and supplied by LION himself. Results obtained seem remarkable, and include extended periods of self-sustain. LION and Bob Greenyer and myself are hoping to organise an extended test/replication of this fuel mix in my lab using materials prepared by LION himself. Watch this space for more news on that- though it might take a few weeks for LION to get everything ready. Looks like we have a real breakthrough here, and all being well I expect to be able to do a live 'show and tell' of this remarkable discovery (once replicated) at Mats Lewans Stockholm conference in June.


    ETA- I hope to be able to test some of the material obtained from a spent fuel tube (the one shown in Bob's videos) to test for superconductivity in a very expert laboratory. Just a hunch on my part.

  • Thanks for posting this Axil. LION is a http://www.lookingforheat.com client, and uses our original 'Model T' reactor and fuel tubes. The 'fuel' which contains industrial diamonds bonded onto nickel pads and deuterium was developed and supplied by LION himself. Results obtained seem remarkable, and include extended periods of self-sustain. LION and Bob Greenyer and myself are hoping to organise an extended test/replication of this fuel mix in my lab using materials prepared by LION himself. Watch this space for more news on that- though it might take a few weeks for LION to get everything ready. Looks like we have a real breakthrough here, and all being well I expect to be able to do a live 'show and tell' of this remarkable discovery (once replicated) at Mats Lewans Stockholm conference in June.


    ETA- I hope to be able to test some of the material obtained from a spent fuel tube (the one shown in Bob's videos) to test for superconductivity in a very expert laboratory. Just a hunch on may part.

    We are excited by what you said Alan..

    Maybe too much of things have been shared here about "diamond adding" therefore what is your understanding, Alan about Diamond Role ?

    I remember you said in the past that Carbon should be a Rossi's secret but diamonds ? in relation with "Director's hypothesis ?

    What suggest Bob Higgins, also ?

  • The use of Diamonds in LENR systems has been 'in the air' for some time. Rossi has made passing mention of this, and others (who wish for anonymity) have picked up on it. The reason is because suitably treated diamonds have an incredibly low work function - the ability to emit electrons. I suggest a good place to start looking at this is to investigate the work of Professor Johan Prins, a real maverick physicist. He has published a fascinating book which covers a bread range of fairly heretical interpretations of QM and Superconductivity, available from Amazon (and others). It's called 'The Physics Delusion', and covers in some detail (but not too much) his various run-ins with the high priests of the Church of Physics.


    But if you want to know more about doped diamonds, I suggest you read one of his patents on the topic. https://www.google.co.uk/paten…YAhXIDMAKHY8BBMMQ6AEITDAF

  • The use of Diamonds in LENR systems has been 'in the air' for some time. Rossi has made passing mention of this, and others (who wish for anonymity) have picked up on it. The reason is because suitably treated diamonds have an incredibly low work function - the ability to emit electrons. I suggest a good place to start looking at this is to investigate the work of Professor Johan Prins, a real maverick physicist. He has published a fascinating book which covers a bread range of fairly heretical interpretations of QM and Superconductivity, available from Amazon (and others). It's called 'The Physics Delusion', and covers in some detail (but not too much) his various run-ins with the high priests of the Church of Physics.


    But if you want to know more about doped diamonds, I suggest you read one of his patents on the topic. https://www.google.co.uk/paten…YAhXIDMAKHY8BBMMQ6AEITDAF

    Yes, it appaers to be connected finaly with Airbus patent.

    To remind, they doped Ni deposited onto ZrO2 substrat to create "holes" N or P ( i don't remember which one exactly) as semi conductors technology.

    Therefore, for electron emitters as for thermoionic emitter you need a current as input to creates electron's flux.

    i don't know if it's the case of Lion ?

    If yes, what would diamonds have over VS all patents about thermionic emitter alloys ?

  • I've watched the first 2 Goodyer videos that axil posted and I'm finding them less than convincing. I know from experience that one always sees all sorts of interesting structures in SEM micrographs. Bob Goodyer latches on to this and sees patterns everywhere that he then freights with importance. But he never compares them to what can be seen in control cases. Does anyone else have the same feeling?


    I'm confused about whether LION ever took advantage of the double-barreled nature of the Looking for Heat "Model T" to run a dummy reactor* on the other side. If he did, then is there a similar array of interesting phenomena there too?


    I do enjoy the empirical nature of Greenyer's presentations ... but I am unpersuaded by his interpretations.


    *A dummy reactor might have everything the same,say, except that light water instead of heavy is used for soaking the diamonds

  • When correctly doped, diamonds appear to have the lowest work functions ever recorded - they will emit electrons at very low voltages. The speculation is that inside the (possibly) low-pressure environment of a fuel tube they emit EV's with sufficient energy to interact with other materials present to produce the effects that LION is seeing in his system.

    .

  • Alan Smith

    According to a paper I found with a web search, the work function of certain doped diamond films can be as low as 0.9 eV (full copy here). It might be interesting/useful to note that Holmlid suggested that it could become even lower than 0.5 eV with Rydberg matter of Cesium, from his early '90s research. His measurements have been criticized as far as I am aware of, but they have been partially reproduced a few years ago by Yarygin et al. The experiments caused an anomalous reverse current phenomenon from the lower-temperature, RM-covered Ni+C perforated collector electrode, with a measured work function of ~1.0 eV in their case.

  • Thank you can I liked the paper. Abstract below, the temperature range mentioned certainly seems to align with what we know.


    'Thermionic electron emitters are a key component in applications ranging from travelling wave tubes for

    communications, space propulsion and direct energy conversion. As the conventional approach based on
    metallic emitters requires high operating temperatures the negative electron affinity (NEA) characteristic of
    diamond surfaces in conjunction with suitable donors would allow an electronic structure corresponding to a
    low effective work function. We have thus prepared phosphorus-doped polycrystalline diamond films on
    metallic substrates by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition where an NEA surface characteristics was
    induced by exposure of the film surface to a hydrogen plasma. Thermionic electron emission measurements
    in an UHV environment were conducted with respect to the Richardson–Dushman relation observing an
    emission current at temperatures b375 °C. Measurements were terminated at 765 °C without significant
    reduction in the electron emission current indicating a stable hydrogen passivation of the diamond surface. A
    fit of the emission data to the Richardson equation allowed for the extraction of emission parameters where
    the value of the materials work function was evaluated to 0.9 eV. This value could well be the lowest
    measured work function of any known material.'


  • Alan Smith

    According to a paper I found with a web search, the work function of certain doped diamond films can be as low as 0.9 eV (full copy here). It might be interesting/useful to note that Holmlid suggested that it could become even lower than 0.5 eV with Rydberg matter of Cesium, from his early '90s research. His measurements have been criticized as far as I am aware of, but they have been partially reproduced a few years ago by Yarygin et al. The experiments caused an anomalous reverse current phenomenon from the lower-temperature, RM-covered Ni+C perforated collector electrode, with a measured work function of ~1.0 eV in their case.


    There are a number of very interesting papers online about methods of doping diamond emitters. The key is to increasing the density of the dopant. Using two dopants - first a layer of oxygen and then lithium - I've read that negative values could be achieved. I believe the most negative value I've read about is -4. However, you can also use layers of oxygen and then hydrogen or hydrogen by itself. There are a number of different combinations to test out.


    But, for the record, I do NOT think the E-Cat technology or LENR as a whole depends on nano-diamonds. There are many ways to induce EVO production without them. In my opinion, properly doped nano-diamonds may be a shortcut that reduces the need for other types of stimulation. More than anything else, though, I'd like to see a simple RF plasma based reactor using a rotating magnetic field to create and sustain spheromaks.

  • Paradigmnoia,


    We have a lot more to go on now than only the use of low work surface materials being used. I think we now know why low work function materials may have been used in certain circumstances, what they produced, and some of the effects that would result. But I don't think we have the full story from LION. For example, I don't think simply soaking his nickel pads with embedded diamonds in heavy water would result in any significant deuterium absorption. Either he was using some type of electrolytic loading method (perhaps using the pads as cathodes) or he was utilizing another hydrogen/deuterium source in the reactor. My guess is he added some quantity of LiH which both provided hydrogen (deuterium isn't critical in my opinion) and lithium to perhaps further lower the work function of the diamond. I simply wish he'd write up a simple, short paper describing his fuel prep and reactor loading methods. This, of course, won't happen. Almost no one in this field desires to be truly open and transparent. Everyone desires to "play the game" for one reason or another: usually for money or fame.

  • Almost no one in this field desires to be truly open and transparent. Everyone desires to "play the game" for one reason or another: usually for money or fame.


    How can the secretive LENR researchers become rich and famed if they refuse to tell the world how to avert global warming, famine and war?


    I can easily think of more probable reasons for their silence.

  • Diamonds have a low work function but are not conductors.


    Not strictly true - doped diamonds (like doped racehorses) are capable of much more. Phosphorus doped diamonds films, produced by chemical vapour deposition, are n-type semiconductors. Alternating boron-doped and phosphorus-doped layers produce p-n junctions and may be used to produce ultraviolet emitting LED's.


    https://www.thoughtco.com/diamond-a-conductor-607583

  • Director ,

    I only vaguely recall the topic of the conversation on ECW, but I introduced a paper from about 1902, if I recall correctly, which might be of interest now. I'll see if I have it stored away somewhere, and post it again. Heinrich, or something like that? I think the discussion was about low voltage plasmas, and the possible role of cerium and alumina oxides, and the paper (I believe) was on empirical tests on low work function materials. Ceria I think had a low work function and high temperature stability, making it a suitable coatingor dopant for electron emission surfaces.

  • Holmlid uses graphite to produce metallic hydrogen. Why? Also one of the ingredients of the fuel that made up the load that powered the Cravens golden ball reactor was graphite. In that experiment, magnetic field lines were produced by SmCo7 magnetic dust.


    Like the carbon in both the Holmlid and Cravens experiments, the diamond in LION's fuel has a hexagonal crystal structure based on how it was manufactured. This crystal structure has two properties that might be important in LENR. First, it produces a lenzing effect that generates a vortex based magnetic field when magnetic field lines pass through it. Such an effect may have been important in the Cravens experiment.


    Second, grahite filters electron tunneling to allow only electrons of certain chirality to pass through. This effect might have been active in the process that forms metallic hydrogen in the Holmlid hydrogen preparation process.


    For your information


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chirality

  • I don't know about Axil, but I'm not talking about 1 eV electrons. Kenneth Shoulders discovered that EVs, even during mid-flight before impact on a target, could continuously spray out copious numbers of 2KeV electrons. In some conditions, the energy level could go up to 50KeV. However, we know that even with macro-EVOs called spheromaks (the same geometric structure but in a larger size used in conventional hot fusion experiments and energy weapons) can spray out relativistic electrons upon impacting an object. An EVO is a fantastic source of a wide array of emissions: smaller EVOs, relativistic electrons, x-rays from breaking electrons, sometimes neutrons (fast and slow), RF energy, etc. When an EVO strikes an embrittled target, the fuel will be bombarded with just about every type of stimulation thought to induce LENR.

  • Did I misunderstand something ? Because now it seems we are talking about electrons at 1 eV to trigger Lenr?


    Is these engineering tricks finally only creates slow electrons, the Lenr's secret ?

    Two particles are required to produce LENR: the electron and the photon. These two particles combine to produce a boson that is called a polariton. The magnetically active polariton is called a magnon. When these particles combine together, this composite particle can produce a Bose condensate where its spin is important. This condensate combines and focuses the spins of trillions of magnons into a narrow flux tube.


    The energy level of this quasiparticle is irrelevant, its spin is what is LENR active. These particles produce a magnetic flux tube whose properties are special. IMHO, the special property is chirality or polarization of the magnetism that can disrupt the chiral balance of the subatomic particles inside the proton. Chirality is the rotational direction of the spin of the particle: either right handed or left handed,


    500px-Right_hand_rule_cross_product.svg.png



    mUD0C.png


    LENR is decay of the proton when the chiral properties of some of the particles inside the proton is changed by the magnetic flux tube.

  • About diamons,d I've followed an interesting application of boron doped diamonst for purifying water through electrolysisi.

    Diamonds resist better high current.

    http://www.waterworld.com/arti…er-without-chemicals.html

    http://www.scielo.br/scielo.ph…d=S1516-14392007000400016


    about slow electrons because of low workfunction (not sure I understand what it mean ? low exit potential barrier?), may I make a parallel with glow discharge experiments ? is is meaningful?

  • When an EVO strikes an embrittled target, the fuel will be bombarded with just about every type of stimulation thought to induce LENR.

    The EVO is a secondary LENR causation factor. The EVO is a bag of energy much like a laser pulse. When the EVO hits the surface of a metal, the energy release that the EVO produces generates a polariton soliton. This soliton is what is the primary LENR agent.

  • Boron nitride is an electron blocker because of the nature of the bonds of the boron and nitrogen in its hexagonal crystal structure.

  • I am considering diamonds as electron and EVO emitters.


    Electrode emitters come in multiple forms, but two common ones are hot (thermionic) and cold (closer to pure field emission) cathodes. For an electron to eject from an emitter, the "work function" must be overcame. Basically, an energy barrier must be breached. When this happens, an electron is able to push out of the emitter into free space or a gaseous environment or maybe even a liquid. Ordinary metals like nickel can serve as emitters, but they have a relatively high work function. To overcome it, metals like nickel are typically heated. However, even nickel and tungsten can be "doped" with different elements to lower the work function. Diamond, especially when doped with various elements, seems to have an extremely low work function -- even reaching negative values. This means when heat, light, or photons or voltage interact with a diamond emitter, the electrons can flow out EASILY. Interestingly, in many mainstream papers about diamond emitters, in some cases, the electrons flow out in discrete individual "bunches" rather than a steady stream. To me, this screams EVO.

  • I am considering diamonds as electron and EVO emitters.


    Electrode emitters come in multiple forms, but two common ones are hot (thermionic) and cold (closer to pure field emission) cathodes. For an electron to eject from an emitter, the "work function" must be overcame. Basically, an energy barrier must be breached. When this happens, an electron is able to push out of the emitter into free space or a gaseous environment or maybe even a liquid. Ordinary metals like nickel can serve as emitters, but they have a relatively high work function. To overcome it, metals like nickel are typically heated. However, even nickel and tungsten can be "doped" with different elements to lower the work function. Diamond, especially when doped with various elements, seems to have an extremely low work function -- even reaching negative values. This means when heat, light, or photons or voltage interact with a diamond emitter, the electrons can flow out EASILY. Interestingly, in many mainstream papers about diamond emitters, in some cases, the electrons flow out in discrete individual "bunches" rather than a steady stream. To me, this screams EVO.

    There and many devices that produce electron emissions. Vacuum tubes and light bulbs with thorium spiked filaments for example. These devices are not LENR active. You just cannot take one characteristic of a material and tag it as the cause of LENR. Where is the causal chain in the theory?

  • But how does the electrons produce fusion??? The L&W theory???


    There are many possibilities. But I don't think the electrons are the only way that EVOs induce LENR. But according to the electron theory there are a few possibilities.


    1) The "LAV" or discrete breather theories of Dubinko about electron or x-ray induced LENR.


    http://www.worldscientific.com…16500065?journalCode=jmmp


    2) The bombardment of charged particles inducing SPPs on the surface that could produce LENR.


    3) Tiny scale "cooper pair" like EVOs (AKA Heavy Electrons) penetrating the electron orbitals and inducing LENR.