I had not bothered to read the Arxiv paper, but seeing that it was quoted in Nature, Picked my curiousity. I think the weaselese was mandatory because this experiment has all the hallmarks of a classic plasma discharge LENR publication, and has also things in common with the SAFIRE project.
Now I understand why it was only accepted by Arxiv. JedRothwell , this paper could be perfectly added to the LENR-CANR.org repository.
I'm happy to declare myself a cold fusion convert if that paper describes cold fusion. And any other plasma discharge work using acceleration voltages of 2kV - 15kV and finding evidence at low levels of D-D fusion from neutron detection that increases at larger acceleration voltages.
This is interesting because the shielding potentials are higher than expected. Though as this paper points out there is some uncertainty in the data. But anything not understood is worth further exploration.
I don't understand "weaselese" nor why it is like other CF papers where there is no detection of neutrons, and no accelerating potential that is large enough to overcome (at small rates) the Coulomb barrier.