Understanding low energy nuclear reactions. An overview by Péter Kálmán, Budapest University of Technology and Economics

  • Summary:

    This paper reviews a theoretical program to understand the field of low energy nuclear reactions (LENR), initially called cold fusion, which was a puzzle of the last three decades. A series of concepts, which were raised and partly elaborated, are presented. The key concept is a three-body mechanism, where one of the nuclei serves as a catalyst for the reaction of the other two. In these reactions, a single fusion product or two outgoing nuclei are created, along with the recoiled catalytic nucleus. They carry off the nuclear energy released, and heat the surrounding materials by multiple collisions. Importantly, they produce high energy γ radiation with negligible probability. So, this three-body idea solves the two major riddles of LENR, that nuclear reactions can occur at ordinary temperatures and without emitting γ radiation. Cross sections and rates are calculated using standard quantum mechanics, and accepted nuclear and solid-state physics. Their dependence on relevant densities, and on the reacting and catalytic nuclei, are explicit. The theoretical ideas and the results of their elaboration are compared with diverse data from LENR experiments with considerable success.


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  • They carry off the nuclear energy released, and heat the surrounding materials by multiple collisions. Importantly, they produce high energy γ radiation with negligible probability. So, this three-body idea solves the two major riddles of LENR, that nuclear reactions can occur at ordinary temperatures and without emitting γ radiation.

    Sorry this is classic nonsense kinetic fusion theory not LENR where we have no recoil at all! Cross sections have no meaning at all and are unphysical just there to compute a curve for engineering a certain reaction.

  • Thanks Rob Woudenberg . Another good Kalman paper. Nagel spoke highly of him at ICCF22, and good to see they teamed up afterwards.


    I am not good with the details of all the various theories, but enjoyed reading this nonetheless. Very comprehensive. Especially the sections explaining how plasmas are related to LENR. That always baffled me, but too afraid to ask. Now I know.

  • Matsumoto talked about many body interactions in his “nattoh model” I know the theories are trying to make sense of the observations and building on previous knowledge, but sometimes a new radical approach can solve the conundrum. We must let observations tell the story instead of wanting to force a model to fit observations.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • Akito Takahashi has also embraced the many body theory, though his adherence to this is not rigid. As an experimental scientist he is also a pragmatist.


    Journal of Physical Science and Application 3 (3) (2013) 191-198 Physics of Cold Fusion by TSC Theory Akito Takahashi1, 2 1. Technova Inc., Uchisaiwai-cho 1-1-1, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0011, Japan 2. Professor Emeritus Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan Received: March 05, 2013 / Accepted: March 08, 2013 / Published: March 15, 2013.


    Abstract:


    This paper reviews the author’s recent works on the basic physics of cold fusion by the TSC (tetrahedral symmetric condensate) theory. Models of TSC formation conditions in condensed matter are first proposed. Secondly formulas for cold fusion rates per D(H)-cluster are explained with typical quantitative results. The 4D/TSC fusion and the 4H/TSC WS fusion are underlying mechanisms, respectively for the D (deuterium)-system and the H (protium)-system. Key words: Cold fusion, condensed matter, TSC theory, D(H)-cluster, 4D fusion, 4H WS fusion. 1. Introduction


    (19) (PDF) Physics of Cold Fusion by TSC Theory. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/p…Cold_Fusion_by_TSC_Theory [accessed Jan 09 2021].

  • Jean Luc Paillet gave me all these papers earlier about Peter Kalman works.

    This first one is Kalman's own explanation of Ecat process.


  • Sorry this is classic nonsense kinetic fusion theory not LENR where we have no recoil at all! Cross sections have no meaning at all and are unphysical just there to compute a curve for engineering a certain reaction.

    Jürg, I understand your comments, but not everyone is convinced about your model yet (or do understand it).
    I post this here to keep an open mind for ´classical´ approach as well.

    Respect for your works though.

  • I understand his model allows for it but also for a combination of two-three and more body interactions, occurring simultaneously and thus interacting between interactions, which is a somewhat clever way to leave room for many unexpected things to happen.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • Jürg, I understand your comments, but not everyone is convinced about your model yet (or do understand it).

    This is OK. But we don't have kinetic many body reactions in LENR. We only know a few random cases of most like rare side reactions. In sono-fusion this is less clear as the impact speed is already relativistic!


    So it's a bad idea to model a process that experimentally does not exists...(We would all be dead if...)

  • What is a boson? What is a fermion? It a classification based collision behaviors. Boson do stimulate like behavior of other bosons A Laser is an example. The apparent result is a multiple body reaction. Production of phat is the behavior like that of a laser with a twist.


    The multiple body interaction was proposed by Einstein as a reason for reaction which seem to have energies which approach a nuclear reaction but occur when only energies near the normal environmental temperature range are available.


    Phat photons fit Einstein's explanation. For hydrogen phat the energies are equal to 13.6 times n*n where an is a integer, a quantum number. These phat frequencies are observed in the spectra of hydrogen and in the spectra of the sun. If you look for them.


    With phat photon energies available reaction of body of mass appear to undergo cold fusion. Yet the true catalyst what a body without mass.

  • Взаимодействие с другими людьми

    Jean Luc Paillet gave me all these papers earlier about Peter Kalman works.

    This first one is Kalman's own explanation of Ecat process.


    What is the problem of those who write the same articles as Peter Kalman - "Charged particle assisted nuclear reactions in solid state environment:

    renaissance of low energy nuclear physics "???

    All these physicists are struck by the most difficult theoretical virus in physics and mistakenly believe that the particles are "charged" ... Millions of physicists are too lazy to check the mistakes of their predecessors! They are as one amazed by "authoritarian thinking" and blindly trust their teachers! And their teachers blindly believed, in turn, their teachers ... I analyzed the history of the introduction of a theoretical virus into nuclear physics and today I responsibly declare - "there is no" charge "on the electron," there is no "charge" on the proton! We have been defamed for 120 years or more! We were defamed by XXXXX physicists! Why did they do it? Why did they ignore the disclosures of the German physicist Karl Schreber? Why is the name of this remarkable physicist missing from Wikipedia today ??? Think about it!

    Die Jfaasse der elektrischen Grössen, 1899 - https://cloud.mail.ru/public/2ZuE/6EhstsLjG

    Die Jfaasse der elektrischen Grössen, 1899 - https://drive.google.com/file/…GK-6KBIZ/view?usp=sharing

    Physicist Charles Coulomb and Cavendish, 15 September 2020 - https://cloud.mail.ru/public/4MUd/Ao4WCYyFq

    Physicist Charles Coulomb and Cavendish, 15 September 2020 - https://drive.google.com/file/…65DWsrpu/view?usp=sharing

    Model of the Electron, Ph.M. Kanarev -

    http://redshift.vif.com/Journa…01/V07NO3PDF/V07N3kan.PDF

  • Jean Luc Paillet gave me all these papers earlier about Peter Kalman works.

    This first one is Kalman's own explanation of Ecat process.


    Especially for you, I "unearthed" a forgery that was made by physicists of the past, and disassembled this FORIT in my article -

    Correspondence with Igor Nikolaevich Stepanov dated June 22, 2020 - https://cloud.mail.ru/public/1mSx/2ti91GWkP

    Correspondence with Igor Nikolaevich Stepanov dated June 22, 2020 - https://drive.google.com/file/…5ADwlehP/view?usp=sharing

  • Jean Luc Paillet gave me all these papers earlier about Peter Kalman works.

    This first one is Kalman's own explanation of Ecat process.


    In his article "Effect of impurities on nuclear fusion" Peter Kalman presents you with a false interpretation of nuclear reactions! There are no Coulomb interactions in nature, but there are magnetic interactions between clusters of free electrons, between an electron and an electron, between a proton and an electron, and between a proton and a proton ... There are no "strong" interactions in nature, there are no "weak" interactions in nature - all nuclear reactions and all chemical reactions are magnetic in nature!

  • Взаимодействие с другими людьми

    That is quite a claim. If there is no charge how do you explain the magnetic field created, in fact how do you explain the cathode ray tube?

    I am quoting part of my article to you -

    “On page 387, Thomson defined charges -


    "Charges. - En vertu des theorems fondamentaux, on devra distribuer sur la surface de la sphere A une masse qaa = ∑An d’electricite, et sur B une masse de signe contraire qab = ∑Bn pour produire les memes potentiels sur ces spheres. "


    “Charges. “According to fundamental theorems, we will have to distribute the mass qaa = ∑An of electricity on the surface of the sphere A, and the mass of electricity of the opposite sign qab = ∑Bn on B, in order to create the same potentials on these spheres.” Thomson's symbol "q" denotes the mass of electricity ... In the same place he writes - "we can also notice that the distribution on A is the sum of distributions equivalent to each of the masses of An."


    Now let's just think about it ... What happened on the spheres with Thomson or Charles Coulomb? The answer is free electrons ... This is their mass - the mass of free electrons, and there is a "mass of electricity" ... There is no CHARGE on a free electron! What is there?

    It has its own magnetic field, its own magnetic poles and its own magnetic moment! It is THESE properties of free electrons that explain all of Coulomb's "ELECTROSTATIC" experiments ...

  • What is the typical misconception of both engineers and physicists when interpreting the operation of a cathode ray tube? They do not understand that it is not an "electrostatic field" that is formed on the deflecting plates, but a "magnetic field" is formed on the plates ... How is the magnetic field formed and due to what ...? Clusters of free electrons are formed on the surface of the plates - if they are turned towards the surface of the plate with their north magnetic poles, then a north magnetic pole is formed on the surface of the plate, and if they are turned towards the surface of the plate with their south magnetic poles, then a south magnetic pole is formed on the surface of the plate. It is these magnetic fields that a cluster of free electrons, which we call an electron beam, reacts to. The magnetic potential of this beam is constantly changing and therefore the "sweep" of the beam is changing ... The magnetic field on the cut-off plates is also constantly changing and this also affects the sweep of the electron beam ... In addition ... Free electrons constantly change the emission spectrum of photons ... It is the difference in energy between photons that creates a color gamut after the absorption of phosphors by electrons - a color picture that we observe on a TV screen ... with a cathode ray tube ... In addition ... From Wikipedia -

    "Demagnetization


    The glow of a color picture tube turned off from the network is normal.

    Necessary in color CRTs to remove residual or accidental magnetization of the shadow mask and electrostatic screen that affects image quality.


    Demagnetization occurs due to the appearance in the so-called demagnetization loop - a flexible coil of large diameter located along the perimeter of the CRT screen - a pulse of a rapidly alternating decaying magnetic field. In order for this current to gradually decrease after turning on the TV, thermistors are used. Most often, a circuit with two thermistors is used, between which a thermal contact is established. The second thermistor additionally heats the first one, increasing its resistance, due to which the current through the demagnetizing coil in the steady state decreases. "


    5 minutes 05 seconds -

    I connected an electron gun-oscillographic tube. Experiments with a Magnet -

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    What is important ? In the electron beam, electrons do not fly, but stand, and therefore a "standing cluster of free electrons" is deflected.




  • That is quite a claim. If there is no charge how do you explain the magnetic field created, in fact how do you explain the cathode ray tube?

    Arc in a magnetic field - https://cloud.mail.ru/public/5FpG/9W35GptWC

    Arc in a magnetic field - https://drive.google.com/file/…aqcei7NE/view?usp=sharing


    In this video, you observe exactly the same clusters of free electrons ... But ... But these clusters have built-in magnetons - these are air molecules, and first of all oxygen, which is a trivial magnet ... In a cathode-ray tube air molecules are evacuated and therefore there are only free electrons in clusters ...