Anatomy of the charge cluster of the Kenneth R. Shoulders
This paper describes a new approach to explaining the phenomenon of the charge cluster, discovered by Ken Shoulders at the end of the last century. The proposed model is not based on any controversial scientific hypotheses, but is consistent with generally accepted norms of science. The concept gives an interpretation of the observed LENR manifestations, and also explains the triboelectric effect from a new perspective.
Physicists, when working with arc discharges in vacuum and gaseous media, have long paid attention to atypical spark formations and small ulceration on the anode, always of the same characteristic shape. Winston Bostick met Kenneth R. Shoulders (K. Sh.) at a conference in San Francisco, Diego on November 10, 1980 and interested him in this incomprehensible phenomenon. After that, K. Sh. worked purposefully on this topic in his laboratory for many years and advanced in this direction so much that he can deservedly be considered the discoverer of the Charge cluster (Ch. cl.). The atmosphere of this work is conveyed in his autobiographical essay "EV A Tale of Discovery" in 1987, and detailed information on the research equipment developed by him can be found in the description of his patent US5123039 "Energy Conversion Using High Charge Density" in 1992.
K. Sh. was able to isolate these formations from the complex process of arc discharge in a gas environment, study them with the help of his own created equipment and evaluate their qualitative and quantitative characteristics. In fact, he discovered a new phenomenon – the ability of electrons to pass under normal conditions into a state of group anomalous density, into a kind of condensed state. The main condition for the formation of a bunch of such electrons is a high level of electric field strength. Ken, in his laboratory, obtained such a field on the tip of a needle-shaped cathode, additionally treated with a liquid conductive material. In nature, conditions for the formation of such clusters can occur on the sharp edges of mineral or ice crystals, as well as, possibly, in some biological forms.
According to K. Sh., a one Ch. cl. or, as the author calls it EVO, has a size of about 0.1 microns, and the number of electrons packed into such a cluster is 10^8...10^11 pieces. At the same time, the charge cluster captures atoms of matter from the surrounding space in the form of positive ions in the amount of one per 100,000 electrons, i.e. 10 ^ 3 ... 10 ^ 6 pieces. Interestingly, this formation as a whole turns out to be practically neutral electrically, despite such an imbalance between electrons and plus-ions. The energy of Ch is also impressive. cl., - it glows at the stage of formation and and forms a crater when destroyed at the anode. In the description of his patent US5123039 on page 68 (line 16), Kenneth R. Shoulders (K. Sh.) explains the extraordinary energy intensity of the charge cluster (Ch. cl.) in this way: «The source of this increased energy appears to be the vacuum zero point energy, or zero-point radiation. An EV, as a coupling device to zero-point energy, operates as an energy conversion mechanism whereby high frequency Zero point energy of the vacuum continuum is converted to lower frequency energy, captured as electrical output energy by the traveling wave conductor, for example.»
Such an interpretation of the nature of the phenomenon explains little, it is counterproductive. Meanwhile, if we accept that the experimental results correspond to reality and the condensed state of electrons in nature takes place, then we can build a completely acceptable model of Ch. cl., which will not contradict the generally accepted norms of science.
In his routine experiments, Ken obtained charge clusters by applying a relatively small pulsed negative voltage to the cathode of the diode under vacuum conditions with a slight addition of inert gas. At the same time, an electric field of very high intensity appeared on the pointed electrode. This turned out to be enough to start forming condensed clumps of electrons. At the same time and along with them, K. Sh. registered a smoldering discharge and free electrons. This fact suggests that the newly formed electronic cluster does not carry any significant energy reserve. He begins to acquire energy immediately after his appearance, and exclusively at the expense of the surrounding space.
A bunch of one hundred billion electrons (10^11) creates a powerful local electrostatic field that attracts positive gas ions from the close environment. Accelerating in this field, such an ion can acquire an energy of the order of 0.05 – 0.08 MeV, while the energy of ionization, or separation of an electron from an atom from its upper orbit, lies in the range of 10-20 electron volts. Our atom crashes into a dense bunch of electrons and passes through it. At the same time, it loses all its electrons and, in the form of a naked, as in a hot plasma, atomic nucleus, now with a charge equal to the number of its protons, continues to move in a retarding electrostatic field. Due to the remaining energy, the nucleus flies away some distance from the cluster and then begins to make elastic harmonic oscillations through the focus of our electron cluster. This means that, averaged over time, the geometric center of the initial electric charge is now in the focus of the resulting Ch. cl., that is, in fact, a single positive charge has moved from the distant periphery towards a powerful formation charged with the opposite sign. The perfect work passes into the kinetic energy of the oscillating nucleus, and this energy already belongs to Ch. cl. In our case, a cluster can attract one million such positive ions, the process goes on until a shielding layer of positively charged atomic nuclei appears around the electron cluster, spending most of the time in the peripheral zone of the cluster.
Since, according to Coulomb's law, the dependence of the force acting on the test charge on the distance is quadratic, a relatively small number of positive ion nuclei can create the illusion of its electrical neutrality near the surface of the cluster if they are located at a sufficiently large distance from the center. Mutual repulsion of ion nuclei inhibited at the periphery will ensure their strictly uniform distribution over the spherical surface of the cell. This, in turn, will create an ideal symmetry of the entire cell and an accurate alignment of the location of the focus, through which atomic nuclei fly at great speed from different directions.
In order to more clearly imagine the geometric structure of Ch. cl., I give figures reflecting the dimensional relationships of structures within the cluster:
-the number of electrons in the cluster is 10^8...10^11 pieces (according to K. Sh. measurements)
-the number of atoms involved 10^3... 10^6 pieces (according to K. Sh. measurements)
-cluster diameter 10^-7 m (according to K. Sh. measurements)
-atom diameter 10^-10 m
-the diameter of the core-ion is 10^-15 m
-the diameter of the electron is 10^-18 m
-electron mass 10^-30 kg
-protons and neutrons are about 1800 times heavier than an electron
-the average distance between air molecules under normal conditions is 10^-8 m
It is not difficult to calculate the mass and density of Ch. cl.: 10^11*10^-30+10^6*10^-30*1800 = ~10^-19 kg. Increasing its size to one cubic meter for clarity, we get the mass: (1 /(10^-7)^3)*10^-19=10^21*10^-19 = 100 kg. The density of popcorn should not deceive, - the internal distribution of the mass of Ch. cl. is very uneven. Since the experiment shows that Ch. cl. is practically electrically neutral, it is logical to assume that there is a shielding belt of positive charges along the periphery. This screen is formed by 10^6 involved atoms ionized to the state of "naked" nuclei. If it is nitrogen, oxygen and carbon, then their combined charge will be plus 7 * 10 ^ 6 units. Considering that the electric field strength decreases proportionally to the square of the distance, the diameter of the electron clot will be: 10^-7*(7*10^6 / 10^11)^0.5=8.4*10^-10 m. That is, about eight diameters of an atom. This is already the nuclear density, the distance between the electrons will be: ~10^-9 / (10^11)^0.33 = 2.2*10^-13 m. If we now look at the sizes of the electron and the nucleus – ion - 10^-18 m and 10^-15 m, respectively, then we can make sure that there is still enough space inside the condensed electron clot for the previously described functioning of Ch. Cl.
The main thing that is interesting about clusters is their increasingly likely involvement in LENR processes. The main argument of the opponents of cold nuclear fusion is the impossibility of overcoming the Coulomb barrier at low temperatures. However, at these low temperatures, physicists are constantly experimenting with nuclear reactions, accelerating the proton to an energy of 0.1 MeV and sending it to the target. Created by nature, Ch. cl. provides a similar mechanism for the implementation of cold thermonuclear reactions, the effectiveness of which consists of two principles: - high-energy nuclei and precise adjusting. All the atoms involved in Ch. cl. exist in the form of "naked" nuclei – ions, their electrons are transferred to a condensed electron clot. The nuclei continuously make harmonic oscillations through the local focus Ch. cl., while at the focus of the cluster their energy completely passes into kinetic energy and they pass this point at a very high speed. The probability of interactions of nuclei moving from different directions and not synchronized in time is quite high. At the same time, since we are talking about naked nuclei, there are exclusively elastic exchanges of impulses, as a result of which the nuclei change speeds and directions. Naturally, there is a certain alignment on the distribution of energies, and there is a probability of an event when two energetic nuclei on opposite courses collide in the very focus of Ch. cl. This will no longer be an elastic collision, the Coulomb barrier has been overcome, the nuclei will merge with the release of energy or split in a different ratio with the absorption of energy - a nuclear reaction will occur.
Now about the adjusting; let's assume that Ch. cl. is built according to the laws of spherical symmetry. The core – ion, coming to the surface of Ch. cl., completely loses the radial component of its kinetic energy. If there is a tangential component, as a result of a random interaction during the last flight of the focus, then it is removed by electrostatic repulsion of other nuclei – ions currently on the same spherical surface. Therefore, the core before the next movement to the center of Ch. cl. it stops completely in space, and its trajectory is not distorted by anything and is always directed strictly into focus, - the electric and geometric center of Ch. cl.
When a nuclear reaction occurs, a powerful case of 10^11 electrons gently dampens possible fast particles and hard radiation, converting their energy into heat. At the same time, the focal center is temporarily blurred, making the probability of a new meeting of the nuclei insignificant for a while. The nuclear reaction of two medium-gravity nuclei cannot give such energy as the fusion of deuterium and tritium, but some small mass defect is released, and this energy supports the current needs of the charge cluster for radiation. Reactions can often occur with zero or negative energy balance. In the process of vital activity, Ch. cl. continuously exchanges matter with the environment - new atoms and molecules are involved in the charge cluster, others are released into the environment as traces of transmutation. Under favorable conditions, a moving Ch. cl can do a lot of work due to nuclear reactions with a positive energy balance: the formation of known craters in metal foil during its destruction, making moves in photoemulsion and even denser materials (strange radiation).
LENR manifestations are possible only in large Ch. cl., in which the energy of the ion nuclei approaches 0.1 MeV, they can be obtained in the laboratory, in thunderstorm or dust clouds, or under special conditions. Most often, Ch. cl. are small in size and do not carry much energy, they do not glow and are difficult to register. Ch. cl. has a diameter of 10^-7 m, on its surface and the upper third of the volume, naked positively charged atomic nuclei (size 10^-15 m) spend most of the time accelerating and decelerating in their vibrations. The air molecules have a size of 10^-10 m and at normal pressure are separated from each other by 10^-8 m. The scale ratios of the design under consideration suggest that Ch. cl. does not have any aggressive effect on the environment. In order to destroy the orbital shell of a neutral atom and capture its electrons, a positively charged atom – ion must approach this atom at a distance less than the diameter of the atom. As can be seen from the model, the probability of such an event is small, and therefore neutral air molecules can freely move in their thermal motion through the Ch. cl structure. The same cannot be said about free electrons - the nearest atom – ion will capture a wandering electron and immediately deliver it to a bunch of condensed electrons.
Now let's move on to the triboelectric effect. The potential difference of tens of thousands of volts obtained by the simple friction of two dissimilar insulating materials, for example, glass and silk, is still an inexplicable paradox. Take a look at Wikipedia - neither quantum mechanics nor classical physics give an answer to this question. If we assume the ubiquitous presence of the charge clusters described here, then the triboelectric effect is explained easily and simply.
Ch. cl.’s life is not only about their growth, they are fragile and can share. It is enough to rub a glass stick on a silk handkerchief, and triboelectricity arises. Half the size of a bunch of condensed electrons is no longer able to hold its fastest atoms, ions, with its field, and they leave the geometry of the cluster. Crashing at speed into a dielectric material, into ice crystals in clouds, into dust particles of ash during a volcanic eruption, ion atoms take the electrons due to them from neutral atoms. The resulting potential difference is perceived as electrification. The charge from the electrified surface can be removed by bringing electrons from the conduction band (with a metal brush), traces of electrolyte (humidity) or negative gas ions (gradual draining of charge).
It can be assumed that there is a very small excess of electrons on the surface of our planet compared to the number of protons. The reason for this may be the solar wind. A stream of corpuscles and ions coming from the sun enters the earth's atmosphere; on the other hand, even more ions and neutral atoms
it is continuously blown away by the same solar wind from the periphery of the earth's atmosphere. A certain balance is being formed in terms of the total electrostatic charge of the planet. How will excess electrons behave on the surface of our relatively cold planet, if they meet on their way in the vast majority of cases self-sufficient, electrically neutral atoms, molecules and compounds.
In general, the most common form of electron residence in nature is in the form of a component of hot plasma (stars, the Sun). In the condensed part of the universe, electrons occupy the orbits of neutron–proton formations, forming atoms and molecules. When, for one reason or another, an excess of electrons appears in certain parts of space, they apparently condense in the form of clumps, take away from the atoms the number of nuclei necessary for their own shielding, and form Ch. cl.. The next most common group will be free electrons. They can weakly bind to neutral atoms and molecules, forming negative ions, and accumulate in conductors. In electrolytes (oceans), anions and cations are mutually balanced. If the triboelectric effect is explained by manipulations with Ch. cl., then we have to admit that these clusters are ubiquitous (lightning on Venus and Saturn). Probably, Ch. cl. can be of different sizes from the smallest and not observed to large, luminous and capable of LENR manifestations.
How Ch. cl. behave in space, for this you need to consider the electric field that they create. If we take the potential in the geometric center of the cluster as zero, then it grows linearly to a very large negative value to the surface of its core and then monotonically decreases to infinity in a quadratic dependence. At the screening radius, the potential rises to a small positive value and then returns to the main pattern. According to this, Ch. cl. they repel each other, evenly distributed in space, but at the same time, they can be locally grouped, which is observed in experiments. More often, these formations show a preference for the interface between the solid and gas phases.
Saint Petersburg, Rulev Jgor, 2023