Anatomy of the charge cluster work of Kenneth R. Shoulders

  • Anatomy of the charge cluster of the Kenneth R. Shoulders



    Annotation.


    This paper describes a new approach to explaining the phenomenon of the charge cluster, discovered by Ken Shoulders at the end of the last century. The proposed model is not based on any controversial scientific hypotheses, but is consistent with generally accepted norms of science. The concept gives an interpretation of the observed LENR manifestations, and also explains the triboelectric effect from a new perspective.


    charge cluster, Kenneth R. Shoulders, triboelectric effect





    Physicists, when working with arc discharges in vacuum and gaseous media, have long paid attention to atypical spark formations and small ulceration on the anode, always of the same characteristic shape. Winston Bostick met Kenneth R. Shoulders (K. Sh.) at a conference in San Francisco, Diego on November 10, 1980 and interested him in this incomprehensible phenomenon. After that, K. Sh. worked purposefully on this topic in his laboratory for many years and advanced in this direction so much that he can deservedly be considered the discoverer of the Charge cluster (Ch. cl.). The atmosphere of this work is conveyed in his autobiographical essay "EV A Tale of Discovery" in 1987, and detailed information on the research equipment developed by him can be found in the description of his patent US5123039 "Energy Conversion Using High Charge Density" in 1992.


    K. Sh. was able to isolate these formations from the complex process of arc discharge in a gas environment, study them with the help of his own created equipment and evaluate their qualitative and quantitative characteristics. In fact, he discovered a new phenomenon – the ability of electrons to pass under normal conditions into a state of group anomalous density, into a kind of condensed state. The main condition for the formation of a bunch of such electrons is a high level of electric field strength. Ken, in his laboratory, obtained such a field on the tip of a needle-shaped cathode, additionally treated with a liquid conductive material. In nature, conditions for the formation of such clusters can occur on the sharp edges of mineral or ice crystals, as well as, possibly, in some biological forms.


    According to K. Sh., a one Ch. cl. or, as the author calls it EVO, has a size of about 0.1 microns, and the number of electrons packed into such a cluster is 10^8...10^11 pieces. At the same time, the charge cluster captures atoms of matter from the surrounding space in the form of positive ions in the amount of one per 100,000 electrons, i.e. 10 ^ 3 ... 10 ^ 6 pieces. Interestingly, this formation as a whole turns out to be practically neutral electrically, despite such an imbalance between electrons and plus-ions. The energy of Ch is also impressive. cl., - it glows at the stage of formation and and forms a crater when destroyed at the anode. In the description of his patent US5123039 on page 68 (line 16), Kenneth R. Shoulders (K. Sh.) explains the extraordinary energy intensity of the charge cluster (Ch. cl.) in this way: «The source of this increased energy appears to be the vacuum zero point energy, or zero-point radiation. An EV, as a coupling device to zero-point energy, operates as an energy conversion mechanism whereby high frequency Zero point energy of the vacuum continuum is converted to lower frequency energy, captured as electrical output energy by the traveling wave conductor, for example.»


    Such an interpretation of the nature of the phenomenon explains little, it is counterproductive. Meanwhile, if we accept that the experimental results correspond to reality and the condensed state of electrons in nature takes place, then we can build a completely acceptable model of Ch. cl., which will not contradict the generally accepted norms of science.


    In his routine experiments, Ken obtained charge clusters by applying a relatively small pulsed negative voltage to the cathode of the diode under vacuum conditions with a slight addition of inert gas. At the same time, an electric field of very high intensity appeared on the pointed electrode. This turned out to be enough to start forming condensed clumps of electrons. At the same time and along with them, K. Sh. registered a smoldering discharge and free electrons. This fact suggests that the newly formed electronic cluster does not carry any significant energy reserve. He begins to acquire energy immediately after his appearance, and exclusively at the expense of the surrounding space.


    A bunch of one hundred billion electrons (10^11) creates a powerful local electrostatic field that attracts positive gas ions from the close environment. Accelerating in this field, such an ion can acquire an energy of the order of 0.05 – 0.08 MeV, while the energy of ionization, or separation of an electron from an atom from its upper orbit, lies in the range of 10-20 electron volts. Our atom crashes into a dense bunch of electrons and passes through it. At the same time, it loses all its electrons and, in the form of a naked, as in a hot plasma, atomic nucleus, now with a charge equal to the number of its protons, continues to move in a retarding electrostatic field. Due to the remaining energy, the nucleus flies away some distance from the cluster and then begins to make elastic harmonic oscillations through the focus of our electron cluster. This means that, averaged over time, the geometric center of the initial electric charge is now in the focus of the resulting Ch. cl., that is, in fact, a single positive charge has moved from the distant periphery towards a powerful formation charged with the opposite sign. The perfect work passes into the kinetic energy of the oscillating nucleus, and this energy already belongs to Ch. cl. In our case, a cluster can attract one million such positive ions, the process goes on until a shielding layer of positively charged atomic nuclei appears around the electron cluster, spending most of the time in the peripheral zone of the cluster.


    Since, according to Coulomb's law, the dependence of the force acting on the test charge on the distance is quadratic, a relatively small number of positive ion nuclei can create the illusion of its electrical neutrality near the surface of the cluster if they are located at a sufficiently large distance from the center. Mutual repulsion of ion nuclei inhibited at the periphery will ensure their strictly uniform distribution over the spherical surface of the cell. This, in turn, will create an ideal symmetry of the entire cell and an accurate alignment of the location of the focus, through which atomic nuclei fly at great speed from different directions.


    In order to more clearly imagine the geometric structure of Ch. cl., I give figures reflecting the dimensional relationships of structures within the cluster:


    -the number of electrons in the cluster is 10^8...10^11 pieces (according to K. Sh. measurements)


    -the number of atoms involved 10^3... 10^6 pieces (according to K. Sh. measurements)


    -cluster diameter 10^-7 m (according to K. Sh. measurements)


    -atom diameter 10^-10 m


    -the diameter of the core-ion is 10^-15 m


    -the diameter of the electron is 10^-18 m


    -electron mass 10^-30 kg


    -protons and neutrons are about 1800 times heavier than an electron


    -the average distance between air molecules under normal conditions is 10^-8 m


    It is not difficult to calculate the mass and density of Ch. cl.: 10^11*10^-30+10^6*10^-30*1800 = ~10^-19 kg. Increasing its size to one cubic meter for clarity, we get the mass: (1 /(10^-7)^3)*10^-19=10^21*10^-19 = 100 kg. The density of popcorn should not deceive, - the internal distribution of the mass of Ch. cl. is very uneven. Since the experiment shows that Ch. cl. is practically electrically neutral, it is logical to assume that there is a shielding belt of positive charges along the periphery. This screen is formed by 10^6 involved atoms ionized to the state of "naked" nuclei. If it is nitrogen, oxygen and carbon, then their combined charge will be plus 7 * 10 ^ 6 units. Considering that the electric field strength decreases proportionally to the square of the distance, the diameter of the electron clot will be: 10^-7*(7*10^6 / 10^11)^0.5=8.4*10^-10 m. That is, about eight diameters of an atom. This is already the nuclear density, the distance between the electrons will be: ~10^-9 / (10^11)^0.33 = 2.2*10^-13 m. If we now look at the sizes of the electron and the nucleus – ion - 10^-18 m and 10^-15 m, respectively, then we can make sure that there is still enough space inside the condensed electron clot for the previously described functioning of Ch. Cl.


    The main thing that is interesting about clusters is their increasingly likely involvement in LENR processes. The main argument of the opponents of cold nuclear fusion is the impossibility of overcoming the Coulomb barrier at low temperatures. However, at these low temperatures, physicists are constantly experimenting with nuclear reactions, accelerating the proton to an energy of 0.1 MeV and sending it to the target. Created by nature, Ch. cl. provides a similar mechanism for the implementation of cold thermonuclear reactions, the effectiveness of which consists of two principles: - high-energy nuclei and precise adjusting. All the atoms involved in Ch. cl. exist in the form of "naked" nuclei – ions, their electrons are transferred to a condensed electron clot. The nuclei continuously make harmonic oscillations through the local focus Ch. cl., while at the focus of the cluster their energy completely passes into kinetic energy and they pass this point at a very high speed. The probability of interactions of nuclei moving from different directions and not synchronized in time is quite high. At the same time, since we are talking about naked nuclei, there are exclusively elastic exchanges of impulses, as a result of which the nuclei change speeds and directions. Naturally, there is a certain alignment on the distribution of energies, and there is a probability of an event when two energetic nuclei on opposite courses collide in the very focus of Ch. cl. This will no longer be an elastic collision, the Coulomb barrier has been overcome, the nuclei will merge with the release of energy or split in a different ratio with the absorption of energy - a nuclear reaction will occur.


    Now about the adjusting; let's assume that Ch. cl. is built according to the laws of spherical symmetry. The core – ion, coming to the surface of Ch. cl., completely loses the radial component of its kinetic energy. If there is a tangential component, as a result of a random interaction during the last flight of the focus, then it is removed by electrostatic repulsion of other nuclei – ions currently on the same spherical surface. Therefore, the core before the next movement to the center of Ch. cl. it stops completely in space, and its trajectory is not distorted by anything and is always directed strictly into focus, - the electric and geometric center of Ch. cl.


    When a nuclear reaction occurs, a powerful case of 10^11 electrons gently dampens possible fast particles and hard radiation, converting their energy into heat. At the same time, the focal center is temporarily blurred, making the probability of a new meeting of the nuclei insignificant for a while. The nuclear reaction of two medium-gravity nuclei cannot give such energy as the fusion of deuterium and tritium, but some small mass defect is released, and this energy supports the current needs of the charge cluster for radiation. Reactions can often occur with zero or negative energy balance. In the process of vital activity, Ch. cl. continuously exchanges matter with the environment - new atoms and molecules are involved in the charge cluster, others are released into the environment as traces of transmutation. Under favorable conditions, a moving Ch. cl can do a lot of work due to nuclear reactions with a positive energy balance: the formation of known craters in metal foil during its destruction, making moves in photoemulsion and even denser materials (strange radiation).


    LENR manifestations are possible only in large Ch. cl., in which the energy of the ion nuclei approaches 0.1 MeV, they can be obtained in the laboratory, in thunderstorm or dust clouds, or under special conditions. Most often, Ch. cl. are small in size and do not carry much energy, they do not glow and are difficult to register. Ch. cl. has a diameter of 10^-7 m, on its surface and the upper third of the volume, naked positively charged atomic nuclei (size 10^-15 m) spend most of the time accelerating and decelerating in their vibrations. The air molecules have a size of 10^-10 m and at normal pressure are separated from each other by 10^-8 m. The scale ratios of the design under consideration suggest that Ch. cl. does not have any aggressive effect on the environment. In order to destroy the orbital shell of a neutral atom and capture its electrons, a positively charged atom – ion must approach this atom at a distance less than the diameter of the atom. As can be seen from the model, the probability of such an event is small, and therefore neutral air molecules can freely move in their thermal motion through the Ch. cl structure. The same cannot be said about free electrons - the nearest atom – ion will capture a wandering electron and immediately deliver it to a bunch of condensed electrons.


    Now let's move on to the triboelectric effect. The potential difference of tens of thousands of volts obtained by the simple friction of two dissimilar insulating materials, for example, glass and silk, is still an inexplicable paradox. Take a look at Wikipedia - neither quantum mechanics nor classical physics give an answer to this question. If we assume the ubiquitous presence of the charge clusters described here, then the triboelectric effect is explained easily and simply.


    Ch. cl.’s life is not only about their growth, they are fragile and can share. It is enough to rub a glass stick on a silk handkerchief, and triboelectricity arises. Half the size of a bunch of condensed electrons is no longer able to hold its fastest atoms, ions, with its field, and they leave the geometry of the cluster. Crashing at speed into a dielectric material, into ice crystals in clouds, into dust particles of ash during a volcanic eruption, ion atoms take the electrons due to them from neutral atoms. The resulting potential difference is perceived as electrification. The charge from the electrified surface can be removed by bringing electrons from the conduction band (with a metal brush), traces of electrolyte (humidity) or negative gas ions (gradual draining of charge).


    It can be assumed that there is a very small excess of electrons on the surface of our planet compared to the number of protons. The reason for this may be the solar wind. A stream of corpuscles and ions coming from the sun enters the earth's atmosphere; on the other hand, even more ions and neutral atoms


    it is continuously blown away by the same solar wind from the periphery of the earth's atmosphere. A certain balance is being formed in terms of the total electrostatic charge of the planet. How will excess electrons behave on the surface of our relatively cold planet, if they meet on their way in the vast majority of cases self-sufficient, electrically neutral atoms, molecules and compounds.


    In general, the most common form of electron residence in nature is in the form of a component of hot plasma (stars, the Sun). In the condensed part of the universe, electrons occupy the orbits of neutron–proton formations, forming atoms and molecules. When, for one reason or another, an excess of electrons appears in certain parts of space, they apparently condense in the form of clumps, take away from the atoms the number of nuclei necessary for their own shielding, and form Ch. cl.. The next most common group will be free electrons. They can weakly bind to neutral atoms and molecules, forming negative ions, and accumulate in conductors. In electrolytes (oceans), anions and cations are mutually balanced. If the triboelectric effect is explained by manipulations with Ch. cl., then we have to admit that these clusters are ubiquitous (lightning on Venus and Saturn). Probably, Ch. cl. can be of different sizes from the smallest and not observed to large, luminous and capable of LENR manifestations.


    How Ch. cl. behave in space, for this you need to consider the electric field that they create. If we take the potential in the geometric center of the cluster as zero, then it grows linearly to a very large negative value to the surface of its core and then monotonically decreases to infinity in a quadratic dependence. At the screening radius, the potential rises to a small positive value and then returns to the main pattern. According to this, Ch. cl. they repel each other, evenly distributed in space, but at the same time, they can be locally grouped, which is observed in experiments. More often, these formations show a preference for the interface between the solid and gas phases.



    charge cluster, Kenneth R. Shoulders, triboelectric effect


    [email protected]


    Saint Petersburg, Rulev Jgor, 2023

  • A little more about the life of charge clusters. Let's assume that all the "extra" electrons, that is, the electrons remaining from the primary assembly of atoms, are concentrated in the form of small and inconspicuous Ch. cl.. Electrons can be free under different circumstances, for example, when a neutral atom is ionized by an extraneous radiation quantum. Most often, this electron will immediately be captured by the same or another positive ion with the emission of the same quantum of energy - the first priority. But Ch. cl. he may be nearby, he will capture this electron and the energy of this very quantum will be in his possession - the second priority. Thus, clusters tend to grow. Sometimes, in turbulent places, where a lot of ions and quanta of radiation Ch. cl. grows to a value when inelastic collisions of nuclei become probable, LENR manifestations occur: synthesis and fission of nuclei, transmutation, energy release, strange radiation. But the cluster does not live in this state for long. During the decay, the electrons get to the positive ions in the environment and other small Ch. cl..


    Another source of "extra" electrons is such an unlikely event as the capture of a neutral atom by a nucleus – ion during its oscillations. With such a hit, the nucleus breaks the electron shell of the atom, captures part of its electrons and, during its next course, carries them through the focus to the central cluster of electrons. The strongly ionized affected atom also rushes to the center and after passing through a bunch of electrons becomes a newly acquired component of the cluster. Ch. cl. incorporated a new core, there was an act of material exchange with the environment. There are also mechanisms for removing atoms from the cluster. For example, if the nucleus – ion received very little kinetic energy as a result of another elastic collision in the area of the cluster focus. Then it will take its electrons from the nucleus (first priority), become a neutral atom and exit Ch. cl.. Much more often, clusters do not grow to the LENR condition. They are brittle, they divide and break up under friction, mechanical and thermal effects. In this case, a triboeffect occurs and free electrons are released. In the conditions of thunderstorms and dust storms, many mature LENR - Ch. cl. appear, transmutation is activated. For millions of years of the existence of the planet with its solid, liquid and gas phases, perhaps the proportion of "transformed" matter on the surface of the planet turns out to be significant.

  • But how is it possible for electrons to cluster together because they repel each other (aka the Pauli Exclusion Principal).


    The Pauli exclusion principle states that no two electrons in the same atom can have the same quantum numbers. This means that:


    • No more than two electrons can occupy the same orbital.
    • Two electrons in the same orbital must have opposite spins.

    The principle was proposed in 1925 by the Austrian physicist Wolfgang Pauli. It states that:


    • In a single atom, no two electrons will have an identical set of quantum numbers (n, l, ml, and ms).
    • Every electron should have or be in its own unique state (singlet state).

    In quantum mechanics, the Pauli exclusion principle states that:

    • Two or more identical particles with half-integer spins (i.e. fermions) cannot simultaneously occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system.
  • Hi Trifon. There is already an EVO thread. These threads should be merged. Unfortunately the other thread is polluted by rambling fantasies like each EVO being another universe etc. It will be hard to get your thoughts communicated without distraction from crackpots.

  • Alan Smith

    Changed the title of the thread from “Anatomy of the charge cluster of the Kenneth R. Shoulders” to “Anatomy of the charge cluster work of Kenneth R. Shoulders”.
  • Axel,

    In this topic I am not trying to explain why it is possible to group electrons (condensed state). It is accepted as an experimental fact that such a state takes place. Only a model based on this assumption is proposed for consideration.

  • Alan, thank you for not closing the topic or or connecting it with an alternative one.

    Nothing further from my intentions, this is an interesting and valuable scientific topic rooted in real-time measurements, observations and effects. I am the villain who put KS' limited edition book onto the web as a pdf, it needed to be done.

  • Axel,

    In this topic I am not trying to explain why it is possible to group electrons (condensed state). It is accepted as an experimental fact that such a state takes place. Only a model based on this assumption is proposed for consideration.

    Perhaps the condensed state is not electrons but rather some composite particle (boson) whose composite mass and charge are almost identical to an electron. As a boson there would be no fermion exclusion. Perhaps the stability of this collection of bosons depends on the sphere of cations which surrounds it. That would produce the layers as your explanation of the anatomy of a charge cluster suggests. Perhaps the apparent conversion of fermions to bosons is due the intense electrical field and exchange of virtual photons which is the energy of that field.


    There is still the problem that electrons repel each other. However, if the Columb force between the pseudoelectrons (composite particles as above) is not singular, then they would attract at very close distances. Pharis Williams has proposed such a non-singular relationship between charged particles. A non-singular relationship could then be decomposed to the usual Columb force and an attractive force at very short distance. I have provided the math elsewhere in this forum under the assumption that the attractive force can be modeled as a form of gravity. One does a balance of the repulsion on the pseudoelectron at the escape horizon to its attraction to the cluster of electrons. That lets one solve for this second form of gravity's coupling constant. Electro-gravity coupling constant is Gre. Its value is kqe2/me2 based on the above balance. The values in the constant are: k, coulomb's constant, and the electron charge and electron mass. The electron mass and charge follow from the assumption that the pseudoelectron has insignificant mass and charge difference from an electron.


    Electro-gravity would explain other things that just ball-lightening and charge clusters. For example, one could use it in modified gravity to explain "dark matter". Or rather as Electric universe does, show that there is no need for dark matter just modified gravity.


    Electro-gravity makes fusion simple because if a cluster is large enough then the escape energy of a pseudoelectron or other such pseudo-particle attracted by electro-gravity would be in the MeV range. Hence, electro-gravity makes a non-thermal (gravitational) energy distribution that allow fusion near the escape horizon of a charge cluster. Hence, LENR would be charge cluster catalyzed fusion. Hence, as in Ed Storms Amazing Results deuterons are emitted from glow discharge experiments in the MeV range. Fusion in charge cluster catalyzed fusion occurs because of velocities high enough to overcome the coulomb barrier between the target and projectile nuclei. Unfortunately, electro-gravity creates unconventional outcomes of fusion and fission.


    If one compares the electro-gravity coupling constant to Univeral gravity couple constant, one finds that electro-gravity is something like 42 orders of magnitude stronger than Universal gravity. Hence, a very small amount of mass attracted by electro-gravity would cause acceleration near the speed of light for like attracted particles while not significantly accelerating particles not attracted by electro-gravity.


    For example, T Matsumoto proposes that "cold fusion neutrons" form blackholes. This blackhole radiation is found only from cold fusion. These blackholes are a light or particle sources which gets trapped at the interface of a film emulsion exposed to cold fusion. Rather than a track in the film as expected for a high energy particle, the trapped light or particle source develops large spots and ring-shaped images. These images have quantum sizes. For example, if one correlates the blackhole image size to integers one finds that spots correlate 99.9% with integers rather than numbers in-between. If neutrons are converted to "pseudo-neutrons" by electro-gravity then there can't be fractional numbers of neutrons which become a neutron star and then collapses to a blackhole. Further, the multitude of pixels developed in the image are from individual photons or masses emitted from the Matsumoto blackholes. Emissions are something like gravity waves or Hawking radiation. After all, blackhole in theory radiate out of existence.

  • Perhaps the condensed state is not electrons but rather some composite particle (boson) whose composite mass and charge are almost identical to an electron.

    Such a particle has been discovered, it is called a polariton, a quasiparticle of the electron. The problem is that to understand "electron clumping" we must understand Bose Einstein condensation. The theory that then is developed must be constrained by the science that has been developed for this specialty. This requires a lot of work and brain power that few are willing to provide the effort or willing to be constrain by this guardrail. If such an effort is made, the results are so obscure that there is no communication of these results that are possible being replete with jargon because there is no common language. So one stands apart like a outcast abandoned on a deserted island who must swim in a sea of ignorant trolls.

  • Let's consider some controversial aspects of the proposed Ch. cl model. Electrostatic shielding of a bunch of condensed electrons is carried out by naked nuclei – ions that oscillate through the focus of this bunch. Most of the time these positively charged particles spend on the far periphery of the Ch. cl., forming a dynamic shielding layer.


    There are two possible versions of the interpretation of the screening process. The first is complete shielding, when there is no electrostatic field of the electron clot at a distance of ten radii and beyond. And the second version, when the screen creates a pseudo-shielding. Ch. cl. in the near environment is perceived as a slightly positive, then neutral object. In the distant environment, the picture of the distribution of the electrostatic field comes to a monotonous decrease in the field of a powerful negative charge according to the inversely quadratic law. In this second more logical option, a question will arise. If Ch. cl. it is ubiquitous why in practice they do not create an electric current in the air between any electrodes that are under potential, air is a good insulator.


    Here we have to place another feature of Ch. cl.. We are dealing with a macro object. According to the calculations given above, the diameter of the cluster is 10^-7 m, the diameter of the electron clot is 8.4*10^-10 m, and its average density is 100 kg/m cubic. Usually such a particle floats easily in the air, but not in this case. Neutral air molecules (size 10^-10 m) freely fill the space inside the Ch. cl. and do not create a lifting force, as it would be if the volume was closed from air molecules. In our case, the density of an object is determined by the volume of the core, which contains 99% of the mass. (-the number of electrons in the cluster is 10^11 pieces, the number of atoms involved is 10^6 pieces, an atom is 1800 times heavier than an electron). Such a structure will not experience thermal shocks of air molecules at all and will fall under the influence of gravity until it meets the nearest solid or liquid surface. These figures refer to LENR – mature Ch. cl., the vast majority of clusters are much smaller, and their sizes are one to one and a half orders of magnitude smaller.


    Thus, Ch. cl. should not be detected in the air, they live at the interface of the gas and solid or liquid phases.

  • If the subunit from which the condensed structure of the cluster core is formed is asymmetric, a cylindrical symmetry, not spherical, arises. At the same time, the structure grows not only radially, but also laterally. A long cylinder appears, it breaks off, the ends merge, and a toroidal shape appears. Nevertheless, the mechanism of the core–ion accelerator, which explains the possibility of LENR manifestations, as in the case of spherical symmetry, still exists. Only instead of one focus, a toroid axis appears in the center of the sphere, at each point of which nuclei – ions of local cross-section meet.


    As for the observations of Winston Bostik and Ken Shoulders, it is possible that they saw secondary, grouped structures in an optical microscope. The wavelength of the blue color is 5*10^-7 m.

  • the drawing could not be displayed, it can be viewed at: http://rulev-igor1940.ru/theme_203/lenr_A_150.jpg

    Finally, I understood how electrons condense into compact, crystalline clumps, from which Ch. Cl. begin to form. The mechanism of this process is explained by the drawings given here, which need to be considered together. Figure 1 shows the force field near the electron from the position of a single test charge of negative polarity. The resulting force action on this charge (the red curve) consists of the action of three forces: Q, R and S. The first is the usual Coulomb field force repelling our test charge inversely proportional to the square of the distance. Positive R and negative force S are short-range forces, they decrease very quickly with distance. I do not undertake to discuss their physics.


    As we approach the electron, the effect of the field on the test charge initially obeys the Q law. Then the positive R –field begins to act and the force repelling the test charge from the electron first decreases, then reaches zero (point 3), and finally changes sign. Now the test charge is attracted to the electron and it needs to be held. The force of attraction increases to the value bb, after which it decreases again. A powerful negative field S begins to act, it is the closest acting one. At point 2, all forces balance each other, the charge that got here is in a potential well. To get out of it, you need to expend energy.


    Everything that is said about the trial charge also applies to an electron approaching another electron or to a group of already condensed electrons. Having spent the work on bringing the electron closer to such a group, we will immediately partially or even completely return it when the electron "happily" joins the group under the action of a powerful R–force. The electrons in the condensed group, as in a solid crystal, are pulled together by a powerful field. According to the interpretation in Fig. 1, they are located at point 2 and can oscillate to the right and left relative to this point in their thermal motion. The convergence of electrons is counteracted by a very sharply increasing S –force, the crystal is practically incompressible (point 1). But it is able to stretch significantly (point 3), showing the property of a certain heat capacity. This will be useful when the condensed electron crystal, already mature for LENR manifestations of Ch. cl., will have to store and disperse significant energy.


    Fig. 2 shows the change in the energy state of the system during the formation and then destruction of the condensed group of electrons. Suppose, at the tip of the cathode of a vacuum diode, the energy hh necessary for their approximation to the group is transmitted to the electrons in a sequential process by means of a concentrated electric field. Immediately, a significant part of the energy of gg returns to the reaction zone. As a result, the condensed electron crystal has a relatively small internal energy dd compared to the original cc. It is not necessary to confuse the energy of this crystal with the energy of the Ch. cl formed from it.. The charge cluster collects its main considerable energy from the ionized environment, as described earlier. The segment ee is the lifetime of the electronic crystal. A deep potential well gg can retain it indefinitely under certain conditions, in our case of a high vacuum, a condensed group of electrons at point 7 approaches the anode and ceases to exist. The reverse, also sequential process occurs: the anode transfers energy gg to each electron and immediately takes energy hh from it.


    In nature, condensed electronic crystals cannot exist in pure form, with the participation of positive ions, they turn into Ch. cl. The same, in turn, can grow, split up or pass into plasma at appropriate temperatures.

  • Data used:


    -the number of electrons in the cluster is 10^8...10^11 pieces (according to K. Sh. measurements)


    -the number of atoms involved 10^3... 10^6 pieces (according to K. Sh. measurements)


    -cluster diameter 10^-7 m (according to K. Sh. measurements)


    -atom diameter 10^-10 m


    -the diameter of the core-ion is 10^-15 m


    -the diameter of the electron is 10^-18 m


    -the mass of the electron is 10^-30 kg


    -the ratio of the mass of a nucleon to the mass of an electron is 1836


    -the average distance between air molecules at atmospheric pressure is 10^-8 m


    -the charge of an electron, proton is 1.610^-19 coulomb


    Let's take another look at the validity of the proposed concept with numbers in our hands. Kenneth R. Shoulders (K. Sh.) argues that the discrete objects studied by him -(Ch. cl.) consist of 10^8...10^11 electrons and 10^3... 10^6 atoms involved and have a size of the order of 10^-7 m. Did the experimenter have the opportunity to substantiate these figures? Regarding the charge, yes. By destroying a single Ch. cl. on a positively charged electrode, he could use an oscilloscope on a calibrated resistor to measure the voltage from the passing current. The number of electrons 10^8 have a charge 1,610^-19 * 10^8 = 1,610^-11 coulomb, that is, 1.610^-11 amperes per second or 16 microamperes per microsecond. On a 1 kohm resistor, this is an amplitude pulse 10^3 * 1610^-6 * 10^3 = 16 Millivolt. Such a value is recorded with sufficient accuracy by a conventional oscilloscope.


    Now about the number of atoms involved. The ratio between the mass of an object and its charge is usually estimated by the deflection of a moving charged particle in a magnetic field. In this case, the mass of Ch. cl. consists of the mass of electrons, of which there are 10 ^ 11 pieces and the mass of atoms, of which there are five orders of magnitude less - 10 ^ 6 pieces. Let's assume that all the attracted ions are ionized nitrogen molecules N2+ with 28 nucleons. Then the ratio of the mass of the cluster's electrons to the mass of the atoms involved will be: (1 * 10^5) / (1836 * 28) = 10^5 / 51408 =1.94 . This means that an electron clot (crystal) surrounded by ions becomes almost a third heavier, and measurements of its flight path in a magnetic field make it possible to carry out the necessary calculations.


    As for the third figure, the diameter of the cluster is 10^-7 m. K. Sh. most often I observed groups of Ch. cl. in the form of toroidal formations or luminous chains. With the help of special experiments, it was possible to obtain single Ch. cl., in an optical microscope they looked like luminous dots. Considering that the wavelength of the blue color is 5*10^-7 m, the experimenter could not see the object's body through a light microscope and, therefore, it must be less than the wavelength.


    Now let's calculate what energy the ion of the nitrogen molecule N2+ (q) will receive, accelerating in the field of a small electron cluster – a crystal of 10^10 electrons (Q). According to Coulomb's law, the force acting on charges is inversely proportional to the square of the distance:


    F(x) = qQ / (4πεε0x^2); ε0 = 8.8510^-12 F/m; ε = 1;


    1 / 4πεε0 = 1 / (4 * 3.14 * 8.8510^-12) = 910^9;


    F(x) = 910^9qQ / x^2;


    The energy E accumulated by the ion at the point x =R0 = 10^-7 / 2 (at the boundary of Ch. cl.) :


    x is the current linear coordinate with zero in the center of Ch. cl.


    E = integral from infinity to R0 from F(x)dx = 910^9qQ / R0 ;


    E = (910^9 * 1,610^-19 * 1,610^-19 * 10^10) / 0.510^-7 = (23.04 / 0.5)10^-12 J =


    = = 2.8810^6 eV = 2.88 MeV ;


    1 eV = 1,610^-19 J; 4.610^-13 / 1,610^-19 = 2.8810^6 eV;


    The resulting figure should be estimated taking into account the mass of the particle, that is, attributed to one nucleon. So for the N2+ ion, it will be 2.88 / 28 = 0.103 MeV, while for H2+ it is already 2.88 / 2 = 1.44 MeV. The same locomotive pulls trains of different weights.


    The ion received energy of 2.88 MeV at the Ch. cl. boundary, at the coordinate x = 510^-8. Meanwhile, the ion continues to accelerate until it comes into contact with a crystal – a bunch of electrons whose diameter is significantly smaller. For example, if it has a diameter of 10^-8 m, the ion energy will increase to 28.8 MeV. How large is the kinetic energy of a charged particle accelerated by a field and what will its interaction with a bunch (crystal) of electrons lead to?


    I will indicate in the same units the energy intensity of the electric arc process occurring in the operating area, as well as in more serious phenomena:


    - the energy of motion of a gas molecule (average) at a temperature of 1000 degrees K 0.13 eV


    - the radiation energy of the visible light quantum is 2 – 3 eV


    - the energy of loss, acquisition by a valence electron molecule of 5 – 20 eV


    - the energy of total ionization (up to the bare core – ion) of the helium atom is 78.98 eV


    - the same lithium atom 203 eV


    - the same beryllium ATOM 402 eV


    -the energy of convergence of two protons to overcome the Coulomb barrier 1.1 MeV


    - the same for nitrogen nuclei of 70.6 MeV


    - the same for uranium nuclei 700 MeV


    For the sake of credibility, the Coulomb barrier for nitrogen is calculated using the same formula as the calculations above:


    Ek = (910^9 * 7 * 7 * (1,610^-19)^2 ) / 10^-15 = (9 * 49 * 2.56)10^-14 =1.1310^-11J


    Ek = 1.1310^-11 / 1,610^-19 = 7.0610^7 eV = 70.6 MeV.


    From the above data, it becomes clear that the N2+ ion accelerated to high energy at the boundary of the electron crystal will lose its shell, fly through the center of the electron cluster and turn into a core - ion with a charge of 7+. A sufficient number of such ions will turn such a cluster into a kind of "reverse atom" formation, in which not electrons move in circular orbits around the nucleus, but nuclei make harmonic oscillations through the focus of the electron crystal in the center. This model is described in detail above, it allows us to explain both nuclear LENR reactions and the triboelectric effect.


    If the ion nuclei lose their energy to radiation or to collisions with atoms and ions on the periphery of the Ch. cl., a completely different type of formation will occur. In an electronic crystal, as described in the previous text, the electrons are in a potential well surrounded by fairly high barriers. The positive gas ions surrounding this crystal can only offer electrons ionization energy of 5-20 eV, but this is not enough. A shielded quasi -neutral formation is obtained from a dense group of electrons and positive gas ions jostling around in thermal vibrations. They no longer emit, the formation is like a "black EVO".

  • I continue to advertise my charge cluster model (Ch.cl .), now in graphical form, see Fig.3. http://rulev-igor1940.ru/theme_203/lenr_2_150_E.jpg Two forms of existence of the same subject do not contradict each other. It is based on an electronic crystal (#15), a small, spherical object linked by short-range forces with a huge negative electrostatic charge. Not being in an absolute vacuum, this charge will be compensated in one way or another, and a shielding shell will appear. The most interesting is the hot form Ch.cl . It has been explained repeatedly in two of my topics on this site: #43, #49, #61, #62, #1. This form allows for the possibility and explains the mechanism of the LENR process in the form of a variety of nuclear reactions. Not very rare and unlikely thermonuclear reactions of hydrogen and helium in the hot plasma of the sun, but full-fledged head-on collisions of any nuclei involved in the process. More than probabilistic calculations, the ratio between the volume of everything convinces Ch.cl . with a diameter of 10^-7 m and the volume of the focus of the electron crystal, through which all 10^6 atomic nuclei of the cluster continuously pass at maximum speed.



    The "cold" form Ch.cl It differs in that the shielding is carried out by slow thermal ions with a charge plus one e. This form can occur immediately upon the birth of an electronic crystal if the pressure in the chamber is high enough that the free path of the molecules does not allow the ions to accelerate strongly in the electrostatic field of the crystal. The formation of such a cluster is also possible through the degradation of its "hot" form. The phenomenon of finding an array of electrons in the immediate vicinity of a cluster of positive ions is due to a potential barrier of about one hundred volts (#15), which prevents the transition of an electron from the lattice of a crystal to the valence level of an atom. (the energy of a single ionization of an atom is only 5 – 20 eV). The figure "100" follows from K. Sh.'s experiments to reduce the voltage required for generation Ch.cl . The diameter of the "cold" cluster is significantly larger, on the order of 10^-6 m, and the number of attracted ions is 10^ 7 - 10 ^8, respectively. This is due to the fact that most of the shielding component is located near the electronic core.


    Let's take a closer look at the process of forming a "cold" Ch.cl . under conditions of relatively high gas pressure in the experimental chamber. The electric field at the cathode forms an electronic crystal. In accordance with Fig. 2 (#15), the energy hh is transferred to the next electron, for example, 100 eV. At the same time, it is pressed against the electronic crystal, short-range forces are turned on, the energy gg, say 95 eV, is returned to the cathode and this electron is included in the crystal lattice. The dd – cc difference of 5 eV per electron is the acquired positive potential energy of this new group object in relation to the environment. 95 eV, respectively, is the energy that needs to be expended in order to detach the extreme electron from the crystal. At some point, the crystal separates from the cathode, acquires a symmetrical shape and rushes to the anode, following the electrostatic field as a local electric charge.


    In a discharged gas environment, there are always positively charged ions, they "squeeze" to the electronic crystal, surround it and, unable to tear off the valence electron, gradually shield the charge of the crystal. If the electric pulse at the cathode was short, or the experimenter artificially created a highly ionized plasma in the chamber, the Ch.cl . it will not have time to discharge at the anode. Actually, there may not be an anode in the chamber at all, the circuit can work on a capacitive load, only a collector is required to collect free electrons.



    Calculations show that such a sub-particle in its density approaches the density of a gas under normal conditions. According to the experimenter's plan, "cold" Ch.cl It can be filled with ions of a heavy inert gas, for example, krypton or xenon. Then it becomes possible to accumulate this quasi –neutral substance in the liquid phase in a cryo chamber on a positive electrode at a low potential. An electronic crystal, paradoxically, is an insulator, all the electrons in it are fixed in a lattice, there are no free charge carriers. If you collect such "cold" Ch.cl . in a cryo chamber on a sponge made of thin metal fibers, or on a substrate, you can try to remove an inert gas from the drug by de-ionizing its atoms. We will get an object carrying a constant electric field, a completely new object that has no identity with such a class of objects as «electrets». Such manipulations are related to expected practical applications Ch.cl For example, to create super capacitors capable of storing electricity on an industrial scale. (more on that later).

  • fig.4 …

      http://rulev-igor1940.ru/theme_203/lenr_3_150_E.jpg


    "Hot" Ch.cl – this is more about LENR processes, but the prospects for using "cold" Ch.cl . they are viewed better. Although no one denies the results of the experiments of Winston Bostik and Kenneth R. Shoulders, no one is in a hurry to repeat and develop these experiments, prove the existence and investigate the properties of these very Ch.cl . But since we are at a thematic forum, let's fantasize a little and mentally make three products from this cluster, and then see how these products can be applied for the benefit of society.


    Product "A". "Cold" Ch.cl - this is an electrically neutral formation consisting of gas ions supplied to a vacuum chamber, which are additionally compacted by the forces of attraction to an electronic crystal located in the center. At atmospheric pressure, such clusters will be heavier than air, although they consist of the same nitrogen and oxygen. We will concentrate them and collect them in the form of a liquid at high pressure and low temperature.


             Product "B". Here we are talking about the same condensate, but a heavy inert gas or mercury vapor is chosen as the shielding ions of the electronic crystal. In this case, apparently, we will get a liquid or pasty preparation at normal pressure and temperature.


    Product "C" is more difficult to obtain. It is necessary here Ch.cl .’ fix on a silicon substrate, gently neutralize the positive gas ions with a soft flow of electrons. In this case, the gas molecules will fly away, and the cluster sizes decrease by two orders of magnitude. Pure electronic crystals will be fixed on the substrate by an external electric field. Further, by vacuum spraying of the dielectric, the crystals are integrated into the substrate. We get a plate with a constant surface charge or even a volumetric charge in coulombs per unit area. What will the use of such new materials do for the development of technology?


    The most obvious use of composites from electronic crystals (product "C"). Like a neodymium magnet, strips with a powerful negative electric charge are arranged along the generator on the rotor of an electric motor, a positive potential is applied to the flat electrodes of the stator in the desired sequence. Such an engine is much lighter, it does not use transformer steel necessary for electromagnetic induction, copper is also consumed at a minimum, since there are no strong currents.


            Now about energy storage in industrial super capacitors and using other devices (see fig.4). In a capacitor, energy accumulates not in the form of complexes of chemical compounds formed during battery charging, but directly in the form of an electric charge, that is, in the form of living electrons artificially spaced on different capacitor plates. The more of these electrons (linear dependence) and the greater the potential difference we spread them (quadratic dependence), the more energy there is in the capacitor. Consider an ordinary capacitor fig.4a. When charging it, an external energy source moves electrons from one plate of the capacitor to another, overcoming the increasing potential difference.


             The capacitor is characterized by the "strange" behavior of electrons. Under the influence of external influence, there is no uniform compaction of electrons in the entire volume of the conduction band of the metal plate of the capacitor, and they focus exclusively on the surfaces directed towards each other. The electric field does not penetrate into the conductor, and the capacitor lining can be made in the form of a metal film of micron thickness. The only possible way to increase the capacitance of a capacitor is the dielectric constant of the material through which the lines of force of its electric field pass. For the rest, the capacitor remains hostage to its geometry. (formula 2 in the figure). If energy is stored in a vacuum capacitor as a result of forced compaction of similarly charged electrons in a certain closed geometric space, the dielectric itself additionally stores energy in a dielectric capacitor. (see Figure 4b). The elastic internal forces of the material under the action of the field allow asymmetrically polarized molecules to shift and unfold, partially compensating for the external field. During the discharge of the capacitor, this energy is returned. The gain is 8 times for porcelain, 10 times for aluminum oxide in an electrolytic capacitor and 24 times for alcohol. (relative permittivity ε ). There are specific materials, for example, ferroelectrics, with an ε equal to tens and hundreds of thousands of units. (feel the difference). However, their use for the purpose of energy conservation is difficult due to strong hysteresis and residual phenomena in the material.


            In Fig. 4c Our product "B" is used as a dielectric. It is enclosed in an insulating shell to exclude the contact of weakly bound ions directly with the capacitor plates. "Cold" clusters based on a heavy inert gas under the action of an electric field form a homogeneous mixture of free-floating electronic crystals in a liquid of massive ions. Such a structure, due to its plasticity, is apparently capable of accumulating significant energy.


    The storage element based on product "C" is shown in Fig. 4e. This is not a capacitor, but a system of charges opposing each other in space, opposite in sign and always equal in magnitude. In the middle there is a silicon wafer, for example, with pure electronic crystals embedded in it with the highest possible density (product "C"). This is an insulator, the movement of current carriers through this material is impossible. Positive ion collectors are located on both sides of the plate (Fig. 4e position 4). The properties of these collectors are such that, under the action of the electric field of the central plate, they will be filled with positive ions, the total charge of which will be equal to the central charge.


    Each collector has an electrode through which the external electrical circuit of the element is closed. When the charges are balanced, the potential difference at the terminals of the element is zero.


             The element is symmetrical and can be charged in any direction. When voltage is applied from an external source, electrons discharge positive ions at the electrode of one collector and create new positive ions at the electrode of another collector (if it is a gas collector, then they simply discharge the existing negative ions). The ion concentrations to the right and left of the central charge change, a compensating electric field appears between the collectors and, accordingly, a potential difference occurs at the terminals of the element. A device based on a certain volume of artificially ionized gas, an electrolytic bath or a solid semiconductor with hole conductivity can be used as a collector of positive ions.


            Now about using product "A". In fact, it is just air, it is ionized, and the resulting electrons are collected into electronic crystals, around which these same charged ions are grouped. The energy stored in this product consists of energy dd-cc (fig. 2, sub #15 ) and the ionization energy of air molecules (based on each electron of the crystal). The potential barrier gg is responsible for the stability of the cluster, which must be overcome in order for the hh energy to be released and the released electron to reunite with its ion. For such a waste-free "burning" of air in the air, a special device will be required (Fig. 4f). When Ch.cl is discharged in a vacuum chamber on a strongly positive anode, the instantly released energy creates a microcrater of molten metal. In the device shown in the figure, the oscillating circuit allows you to discharge the crystal in portions and divert the received energy to the consumer.

  • Да, а мои плазмоиды вы не видете....

    Нефть - это кровь планеты, надо сделать модель планеты и мы получим генератор Тарасенко, эта энергия покорит вселенную! :lenr:

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