Etiam Inc. patent application in a nutshell

  • LENR excitation is done by polarizing the dielectric ingredient in the reactor!


    Etiam Inc. patent application has been public since May 2013. According to the application, following 3 ingredients are needed in the reactor in order to get LENR:


    - hydrogen gas
    - dielectric material
    - active hydrogen material: a metallic material capable of forming interstitial metal hydrides and/or electrically conductive metal hydrides (nickel, titanium, platinum etc.)


    4th ingredient, apparently beneficial but not mandatory, is the Rydberg catalyst.


    LENR reactions are initiated at the nanoscale (at least one dimension smaller than about 100 nm) by the combination of three control factors: sufficiently high hydrogen gas pressure in the reaction container, sufficiently high temperature in the reaction container and the polarization of a dielectric material.


    Depending on the dielectric material, the polarization is done by utilizing:
    - variable temperature
    - mechanical vibration, e.g. by an ultrasonic source
    - static or variable magnetic field


    The application contains various examples on how to initiate LENR reaction.


    In example 1 the dielectric ingredient is lithium tetraborate, which is polarized by temperature variation.


    In example 2 the dielectric ingredient is quartz powder, which is polarized by mechanical vibrations. (COP > 10 claimed)


    In example 3 the dielectric ingredient is BiFeO3 powder, which is polarized by variable magnetic field.


    Examples 1 - 3 do not seem to utilize Rydberg catalyst at all. Rydberg catalyst is used in example 10.


    Etiam application has soon been public for 3 years. I am bit surprised for the lack of interest it seems to have amongst replicators.

  • The key to successful high powered LENR+ engineering is the production of hydrogen Rydberg matter (HRM) or one of its related topologically chemical compounds that possess the same crystallographic structure, that being a long linear string of hexagonal crystal planes.


    Central to this production method is the application of high pressure to hydrogen in the formation of HRM. In the Sun and the interiors of the large gas planets, it takes the application of approximately 250,000 atmospheres of pressure to compress hydrogen to the point where HRM will form. Hydrogen has a complicated phase diagram as a function of pressure and temperature. To produce HRM in the lab where the ambient temperature is constant, pressure is the operative variable that once as its constraints are met will result in the generation of HRM in the lab setting.


    To understand how past LENR production methods fit into the pressure/HRM meme, both to palladium/deuterium and Nickel/hydrogen LENR methods are based on generating high pressure hydrogen to meet the minimum pressure generation requirements. The Etiam Inc. patent application calls out a number of HRM fabrication techniques that allows HRM to be produced in the Lab environment that involve lowering the pressure required for HRM formation.


    1 - Using molecular bounds in transition metals to compress hydrogen through capillary action. Palladium absorbs hydrogen where molecular bound compression increases as the percentage hydrogen loading increases.


    For nickel which does not absorb hydrogen, nickel requires sintering or surface preparation to open up lattice cavities or cracks that allow hydrogen to penetrate into the nickel where it is compressed by molecular bounds.


    2 – The use of lithium and/or other alkali metals to lower the pressure requirements for HRM formation by 400%. Other low work function additives like rare earth oxides can be used as an addition as seen in the Lugano fuel particle.


    3 – The use of quantum mechanically based hexagonal crystal catalyst such as graphite, mica, and/or quartz as a quantum mechanical template to format the hexagonal crystal structure of HRM. Holmlid uses graphite. Rossi uses mica. And the referenced patent uses powdered quartz.


    4 – The use of cavitation as a way to increase pressure in the metal lattice that holds the HRM in compression.


    5 - The use of a low voltage electrostatic stimulation to help in the HRM formation process.


    6 - The use of an electric arc to induce a shock wave to increase pressure in HRM formation.


    7 – Time. The formation of HRM is constrained by probability when the pressure of formation is marginal. The uncertain principle allows the pressure to increase as a result of the uncertainty in the distances between the hydrogen atoms in the crystal. It is possible that the pressure for HRM formation to reach formation levels even if the sum of the production methods doesn’t meet the minimum pressure threshold. Of course, the closer the pressure threshold is to the formation threshold, the more probable HRM formation becomes.



    =============


    Once HRM is created and released by the lattice, it is electrostatically attracted to the surface of the nickel or palladium micro particles where it is loaded with Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPP) produced at the boundary surface between the transition metal and the dielectric (hydrogen) using infrared photon pumping. The SPP is quasiparticles that produces an intense EMF covering on the surface of the HRM which causes the LENR reaction through the destabilization of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus.



    In Holmlid's case the photons are visible and green in color or ultraviolet in the case of ambient florescent lighting.

  • @John Littlemist: the patent seems to be mostly describing in several ways for obtaining electric fields suitable for generating Rydberg Matter. The explanation is not too complex to understand once one also understands to some extent the underlying theory.


    - Dissociate Hydrogen molecules into its atomic form;
    - Excite (partially ionize) hydrogen atoms so that Rydberg Hydrogen atoms are formed;
    - Once enough Rydberg hydrogen atoms are formed, Rydberg matter can also form. This process primarily occurs on surfaces where RM can release its condensation energy;
    - If the Hydrogen Rydberg Matter formed is destabilized, exothermic reactions can occur;
    - All the above can be achieved with controlled electric field (especially with the field focusing effect of nanoparticles), but there are other methods as well.


    The above process is similar to that described in several other LENR patents (except that very few ones mention Rydberg atoms and matter of Hydrogen being involved).

  • @John Littlemist: I think that's because it requires them to accept that Hydrogen Rydberg matter formation is involved with LENR observations, and to understand the process. Since it's not exactly like what has been claimed all along in the LENR field, there's skepticism that it will work that way. On the other hand, once the possibility is accepted, it will become clearer that there are faster paths which don't necessarily involve nanotechnology and delicate nanomaterials.

  • Here are my doubts about Rydberg matter and associated claims:

    • I get the impression that Rydberg matter is a niche subject that is the focus of Holmlid and his collaborators. Their papers proceed as though it's a well-established phenomenon, but they largely cite earlier papers with Holmlid as a coauthor. This does not mean they are incorrect. But it suggests that there has been a failure to engage a larger circle of researchers to cross-check their work. Rationale for this conclusion, applied to Rydberg matter in general rather than ultra-dense deuterium, more particularly: (1) search for "Holmlid" here, and see that the majority of citations are connected to Holmlid. In addition, (2) see this physics.stackexchange.com anwser.
    • Preprints that I have read from Holmlid that describe experimental results are so thoroughly imbued with theory that it is difficult to tease apart theory from findings of fact. Set aside a theoretical claim, and the experimental evidence will have to be reworked in a different language. I much prefer a clean separation between experimental findings and theoretical descriptions.
    • These points apply doubly-so in the case of so-called "ultra-dense deuterium". This seems to be conjecture intended to explain some patterns that are picked up in the radio spectrum.
    • If my recollection is correct, the part about muons and muon decay goes back to a brief suggestion made in one preprint to account for charged particles that were being picked up in a purpose-built time of flight spectrometer. The spectrometer in question was constructed by Holmlid et al., and there is no obvious way to calibrate it with energetic particles of known energy and intensity (e.g., from a radioactive source). Holmlid could remedy this deficiency by engaging with relevant expertise to do the charged particle measurements for him using tried and true techniques for this kind of thing.

    Here are my doubts about a connection between Rydberg matter and LENR:

    • The Rydberg excitation of an atom is a fragile state, which causes the electron to orbit at a larger distance. The distance depends upon the principal quantum number (roughly, the amount by which the electron has been excited). The further out the orbital reaches, the larger the interaction cross section and possibility of it being disrupted. So in general Rydberg levels seem like they would be easy to disrupt, leading to ionization or de-excitation to the ground state.
    • For this reason it is unclear how Rydberg matter would exist in significant quantities at the surface of a hot metal, which is a chaotic environment.
    • Rydberg matter largely pertains to deuterium and hydrogen. Presumably if we go along with it, we will need a separate explanation for transmutations like those seen by Iwamura, Mizuno, Karabut and Savvatimova. (Apparently, Badiei and Holmlid are reporting Rydberg matter in connection with K and N2.)
    • If we get rid of ultra-dense deuterium, how is Rydberg matter-based LENR supposed to work, exactly?
    • Rydberg matter largely pertains to deuterium and hydrogen. Presumably if we go along with it, we will need a separate explanation for transmutations like those seen by Iwamura, Mizuno, Karabut and Savvatimova.
    • If we get rid of ultra-dense deuterium, how is Rydberg matter-based LENR supposed to work, exactly?


    There is a more direct route to Rydberg Matter (RM) that involves the production of all the pressure required for RM formation, that method being cavitation. LeClair produced the water crystal which is a form of hexagonal Rydberg matter that uses the hydroxyl groups OH- as the subunit of the RM crystal structure. Many of the properties of RM can be seen in the behavior of the water crystal.


    It also has been shown that molten salts can produce erosion of pump impellers at the rate of 10 times that of water. There must also be a form of molten salt that forms graphite like hexagonal crystals under pressure from the constituents of molten salt. The same is true for mercury whose erosion rate in cavitation is greater than that of water. A survey of chemical compounds could be undertaken to test these compounds for erosion levels during cavitation which can indicate if RM will form through the application of extreme pressure. I would be interested in the survey through cavitation of liquid metals such as lithium, lithium hydride and sodium and sodium chloride as RM formation candidates.


    A LENR reactor could be designed to use molten Lithium hydride as the working medium in a cavitating mode. I would suspect that LiH based RM might well be extracted from that cavitating reactor in a fuel pre-preparation mode to be used in LENR reactors that we are now well acquainted with.

  • @Eric Walker: From what I've read so far, although Rydberg matter is metastable, it has a significantly longer lifetime than that of the isolated circular Rydberg atoms it was formed from (minutes to hours if undisturbed by collisions, as opposed to milliseconds at most). In a RM cluster the valence electrons are delocalized and the bond between its ions is metallic-like. Hydrogen RM can be considered as metallic Hydrogen.


    Although it does preferably form from hot surfaces (even as high as 1800°C in some of his experiments), I don't remember reading papers studying its stability there. From Holmlid's early works, Cesium RM is supposedly stable enough to coat the surface of a ~500°C collector in a thermionic generator. I'm not sure about Hydrogen RM; in most cases it seems to me that it's being generated more or less continuously from the RM emitter.


    If we're to assume that in Parkhomov-like experiments Rydberg Matter is involved with excess heat, I guess that high temperature would cause it to decay or transition to something else perhaps even as soon as it's formed.


    As far as I am aware of, the ultra-dense form is the primary reason for nuclear emissions, excess heat other anomalies in Holmlid's case. It's been conjectured that because it's so dense, the products of nuclear reactions occurring below the surface the products have a hard time escaping, unless the ultra-dense layer is removed, depleted or thinned out.


    If we take this away, I have no idea how RM-based LENR would be supposed to work. My rationalization is that he may be wrong on what the ultra-dense form actually is, but his observations are for the most part correct. Since HRM is a precursor to these effects, this automatically makes HRM important.

  • As far as I am aware of, the ultra-dense form is the primary reason for nuclear emissions, excess heat other anomalies in Holmlid's case. It's been conjectured that because it's so dense, the products of nuclear reactions occurring below the surface the products have a hard time escaping, unless the ultra-dense layer is removed, depleted or thinned out.


    If we take this away, I have no idea how RM-based LENR would be supposed to work. My rationalization is that he may be wrong on what the ultra-dense form actually is, but his observations are for the most part correct. Since HRM is a precursor to these effects, this automatically makes HRM important.


    It might be informative for you to get another slant on how HRM works by looking at the water crystal as the active agent in the cavitation process. The water crystal is formed instantaneously by the huge pressure that is produced by the final stage of cavitation bubble collapse.


    You will be amazed by the strength that this crystal demonstrates especially when it eroded hard stuff like diamond.


    If HRM provides the internal heat source active in the interiors of planets and the sun, HRM would need to be almost indestructible. HRM has cosmological significance as dark matter and it is very much more momentous in its structure and its robustness then you might now suspect.


    By the way, LeClair produces transuranic elements as verified by Ed Storms in cavitation which means that the water crystal can handle pressures and heat produced in a supernova.

  • @axil: According to Holmlid in this paper a large and fast compression of molecular hydrogen can cause it to transition to ultra-dense hydrogen with significant release of heat and rapid drop in pressure, which he suggests being the cause of instabilities in inertial confinement hot fusion.



    So if one sees what he calls Ultra-dense Hydrogen as a different phase of Hydrogen Rydberg Matter (although again according to him they're not the same thing) / metallic hydrogen, then huge pressures can indeed produce HRM as you're writing.


    What is not clear to me (and others) yet is how this could be reconciled with the tendency of RM / ultra-dense H to decay in a non-ideal environment after it is formed.


    EDIT: to clarify what I mean, I find sort of peculiar that although it can form both in a vacuum from alkali-promoted catalysts or with huge pressures, it's still only metastable.

  • @Ecco


    There is a positive feedback loop at issue in LENR. LENR must extract more energy from the nucleus than it uses to maintain itself. The various cases of meltdown when LENR is overstimulated illustrates this positive feedback loop when it runs away from control.


    Consider the Exotic Neutral Particles found through their photo-emissions from the ash assays that gainful LENR experiments produce.


    http://restframe.com/downloads/tachyon_monopoles.pdf


    This paper attempts to characterize the mass and energy that these ENP deminstates


    "Adamenko and Vysotskii8,9 estimated an upper limit of kinetic energy at E ∼ −10^^6GeV and particle mass at ≈ 10−23g (≈ 560GeV). "


    This tells us that the HRM gains mass from the nuclear reactions that it catalyzes over time. When HRM extracts energy from matter, part of it is given back as downshifted photons through hawking radiation and another part is stored in a photon based BEC. It is this BEC that shields the HRM from destruction. The more energetic that this BEC becomes, the more longlived and impervious to damage the HRM becomes. The lifetime of the HRM is defined by the amount of photons that hawking's radiation is broadcast to the far field. As hawking radiation is emitted over a long timeframe, the HRM may become a bubble of negative vacuum energy (a tachyon) predicted by string theory.

    I don't want to take you too far yet, you might become incredulous as Holmlid has.

  • "By the way, LeClair produces transuranic elements as verified by Ed Storms in cavitation"


    Do you have a link for this?


    Quote

    The large scale transmutation of elements was verified by three separate independent scanning electron microscope elemental analysis (SEM-EDAX) of the transmuted material, including University of Maine, Orono Laboratory for Surface Science & Technology (SEM-EDAX & XPS under contract), by courtesy of Media Sciences, located in Oakland, New Jersey and by courtesy of well-known Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) researcher and advocate Dr. Edmund Storms, formerly of Los Alamos in New Mexico. The University of Maine, Orono Chemistry Department also performed an analysis known as XPS that measured nucleus binding energy, confirming that the glassy coating seen covering much of the reactor cores was diamond. The SEM analyses collectively detected a total of 34 elements ranging from carbon to polonium. The same samples analyzed by SEM-EDAX and XPS were also analyzed with laser ablative inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) by Shiva Technologies (an operating unit of Evans Analytical Group) located in Syracuse, NY. The more sensitive LA-ICP-MS detected a total of 78 elements ranging from lithium to californium and 108 isotopes ranging from 7Li to 249Cf, a standard detection set that does not include all the possible isotopes, but including most of the stable isotopes and many short and long lived radioactive isotopes. Together, the five analyses showed that nearly every element in the periodic table was detected in every type of transmuted particle in different distributions, up to the limit of the LA-ICP-MS detection range, californium.

  • Thank you. A full description can be found here:


    https://nanospireinc.com/Fusion.html


    This description makes reference to the following concepts: water crystals, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, crystal bow shock nucleosynthesis, the Casimir effect, elemental transmutation using water, acute radiation sickness, van der Waals repulsion, electron and neutron degeneracy pressure, crystallized cavitation reentrant jets for zero point energy production, and microscopic nuclear explosions.


    There is little in the way of a description of their actual experiments and raw data, which would be interesting. My first question is, what are they actually seeing, separated from all of the theoretical apparatus? I would also be interested in knowing what Ed Storms and the other labs found.


    Complicating things, the NanoSpire lab does not look very clean:



    (My apologies if this has gone too far off topic; we can split off another thread if this discussion continues any further.)