MIZUNO REPLICATION AND MATERIALS ONLY

  • Thorough bake out of the MR4 cell for 8 hours at up to 300 watts/350°C substantially reduced the out gassing from the stainless steel. The pressure increase measured after cooling was reduced from 60 Pa (Cal2) to just 8 Pa (Cal3), and appears to be close to standard gas law behavior. See the attached graph for details.


    The protocol originally published by Mizuno and Rothwell specifies evacuating the cell for 1-2 hours at 200°C to remove water vapor. Based on the behavior seen in MR4, that would not be enough to reduce out gassing from the metal cell wall. Out gassing at 350°C is well below the annealing point of the Ni mesh (700°C) or decomposition of any CaCO3 present, but there could be changes in the Pd-Ni interface. It also seems possible that addition of such gas of unknown and uncontrolled composition and density might make the experiment hard to reproduce, as has apparently been the case. Further thought and discussion is certainly needed.


  • The protocol originally published by Mizuno and Rothwell specifies evacuating the cell for 1-2 hours at 200°C to remove water vapor. Based on the behavior seen in MR4, that would not be enough to reduce out gassing from the metal cell wall.


    I am sure we also said you need to monitor the gas with a mass spectrometer to be sure the water is gone. As you say, it might take longer than Mizuno estimated.

  • I am sure we also said you need to monitor the gas with a mass spectrometer to be sure the water is gone.


    Yes, you did, and I did as you recommended. Here's an analysis from an earlier bake out. The primary constituent coming out of the steel seems to be Nitrogen, followed by water vapor as expected. My test documented above shows that out gassing continues and accelerates well above 200°C, when water vapor from surface adhesion should be long gone. I suggest that substantial N is trapped in the steel grain boundaries, and is only released as the boundary stresses are relaxed at 300°C and above. Nitrogen is commonly added to austenitic stainless steels like 304 alloy, up to 0.1%. For details, see

    https://www.totalmateria.com/p…cle&LN=EN&site=kts&NM=202


    In this earlier test there was also some atmospheric leakage that might account for some of the gas detected. For that reason, the analysis should not be considered conclusive. The amount and temperature-dependence of out gassing measured in the latest test is clear, and its reduction after extended bake out confirms that possible atmospheric leakage has been eliminated.


  • The peaks of 14, 17 are somehow interesting, also their height 1:2 : mon-atomic Nitrogen and OH-. Looks like N(OH) from an NO2 reduction. May be from the cleaner.


    You should try to find the origin of the nitrogen. May be just once heat an untreated tube to look whether it was in the steel.

  • Magicsound,


    The mass at 32 indicates an air leak (as likely you already know). Air will disappear faster than water and hydrogen. Both molecules are very difficult to eliminate under vacuum. Do you have a mass 40? Squirt acetone around the outside (care of the flammability!!!) and look for mass 43. Not knowing the set-up, you could have back streaming through the pump (not really likely)?? Why 304 vs. 316? Just curious. Never liked Swagelock fittings in vacuum systems. I tended to go with VCR instead. I also never liked O-rings vs. knife edges but now days I have seen a lot of O-rings (they leak helium though).


    Keep up the good work and I look forward to seeing results.

  • DAK2 The RGA-MS scan I posted was taken from a prior calibration, before the leaking Baratron gauge was replaced. My most recent test following a high-temperature bake-out confirms that leak to have been eliminated. I'll do further MS analysis as soon as I install the new sampling valve and related parts, due to arrive this week. That will use a 1/8" Swagelok tube fitting, the only one remaining in the system.

  • During the bake-out with 300 watts heater power, the center of the cell settled at 358°C. Near the ends of the cell it was around 250°C, measured by the Optris camera. With the external sheath heater now used, the cell temperature is more uniform across the length, and is relatively independent of the cell contents.

  • It's well known that low Thz frequencies are indicated to trigger LENRs.

    I have other information in this direction but are confidential, I say it bluntly.


    Can you give some references for this that are not "confidential"?


    Quote from arise:

    Now, what would it take to make things better?

    A very rough or black painted internal wall, of course !


    By better, do you mean a stronger LENR reaction or process? By black do you mean high emissivity? What kind of black coating could survive in a hydrogen atmosphere at elevated temperature and without out-gassing contaminants that might suppress the desired reaction in the Ni-Pd?

  • I don't have any skin in this game, but I hate to see so much talent and money wasted.


    Success requires following a procedure that actually describes the events leading up to LENR. Application of random conditions and treatments will not do the job. So, please follow a process that is known to work.


    First, a condition needs to be created in the material in which a chain of d can form. This condition can be caused by reacting Pd with d to achieve a high D/Pd ratio. This process causes stress that results in the formation of the required gaps. The burnished Pd used by Mizuno has many weak regions that would form such gaps (cracks) when subjected to this stress.


    Mizuno added d by subjecting the material to gas discharge in D2 gas. Without this treatment, the required D/Pd ratio would not occur and the gaps (cracks) would not form.


    After the gaps form, the material needs to be stored in D2 gas to prevent complete loss of d. Complete loss would happen rapidly, thereby making the material inactive unless it were again subjected to gas discharge.


    When heated, the over pressure of D2 needs to be as high as practical. Impurities in the gas are not important, except the H content of the gas needs to be low. Any H will dilute the D, thereby reduce the amount of power resulting from each fusion process. The D2 gas is necessary to keep some d in the structure. The heating should be done slowly in stages while excess power is measured. The excess power, if real , will be found to increase linearly with respect to log power vs 1/T. Failure to see this temperature effect is evidence that LENR did not occur.


    I can predict that failure to follow these guide lines will result in certain failure.

  • When heated, the over pressure of D2 needs to be as high as practical. Impurities in the gas are not important, except the H content of the gas needs to be low. Any H will dilute the D, thereby reduce the amount of power resulting from each fusion process. The D2 gas is necessary to keep some d in the structure. The heating should be done slowly in stages while excess power is measured. The excess power, if real , will be found to increase linearly with respect to log power vs 1/T. Failure to see this temperature effect is evidence that LENR did not occur.


    This is one of the things that puzzles me about the Mizuno work and the recebt presentation by Francesco CELANI of the Iwamura work. In both cases the D2 pressures are very low, a few Pascals only. The Iwamura system applies this tiny D" pressure and then triggers a reaction by pulling a hard vacuum that fluxes the D2 out of the metal composite. Very counter-intuituve.

  • I agree, this claim is counter-intuitive. I would suspect the rapid change in conditions created an error in the calorimeter measurement. A very low pressure would keep enough d in the structure to cause some LENR but its complete loss would stop the process as result no fuel being present.

  • Analysis of the nanopores produced in nickel and palladium by high hydrogen pressure

    [The formation of superabundant vacancies was observed in the structure in both cases. For Pd, the pores, which formed by the coalescence of vacancies, had dimensions of 20–30 nm when present in the interior of the metal.]


    Evidence for a superstructure in hydrogen-implanted palladium

    [These results are similar to those obtained by very high-pressure hydrogenation of palladium and prompt us to suggest that plasma-based hydrogen implantation

    is likely to induce superabundant vacancy phase generation.]


    X -ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopic characterization of electrolytically hydrogenated nickel and palladium

    [Interesting features about the intergranular cracks developed during and after charging are discussed.]

  • After the gaps form, the material needs to be stored in D2 gas to prevent complete loss of d. Complete loss would happen rapidly, thereby making the material inactive unless it were again subjected to gas discharge.


    When heated, the over pressure of D2 needs to be as high as practical. Impurities in the gas are not important, except the H content of the gas needs to be low. Any H will dilute the D, thereby reduce the amount of power resulting from each fusion process. The D2 gas is necessary to keep some d in the structure. The heating should be done slowly in stages while excess power is measured. The excess power, if real , will be found to increase linearly with respect to log power vs 1/T. Failure to see this temperature effect is evidence that LENR did not occur.

    If we consider the nano-gap hypothesis correct, we will have two primary cases, as I see it:


    a) the 'elastic' case, where low pressure hydrogen will enter into existing cracks and react without essentially increasing the cracks' propagations. When reaction products have diffused from the solid, the cracks will be subject to new reactions. Perhaps 'elastic' is not the right term to use, but it's the one that comes into my mind, based upon elastic (non-destructive) stresses in the solid.


    b) the destructive case, where high pressure hydrogen makes the cracks propagate through the fuel material, eventually making the solid passive (or exhausted).

  • I have shown that the SAV idea is not related to LENR because this structure does not and can not form under the conditions present during LENR. Consequently, it is pointless to continue using this idea to explain LENR. Nevertheless, I realize people will continue to waste their time using this idea because they do not care to study all the literature. In my case, I have no interest in wasting my time arguing about the subject. I suggest, people who are interested should study the full range of what is known to be true rather than making guesses.


    As for the cracks, I propose stress causes a gap to slowly grow wider until a dimension is reached that allows the compound I call the Hydroton to form in the gap. Its formation stabilizes the gap, thereby preventing the gap from growing wider. Stress can be produced many different ways but the most common results from the reaction to form the metal hydride. After a gap has achieved this condition, a fusion process will be initiated by a random event in the gap, thereby releasing energy and photons from the Hydroton. The d lost to fusion will be replaced by diffusion from the surrounding lattice. The fusion process will repeat at each site as each experiences fusion and then replaces the d atoms to form a new Hydroton. The measured power results from many such sites combining to produce random bursts of energy.


    Consequently, the structure required for fusion to take place requires application of stress in the presence of d atoms in the lattice. One without the other will not produce LENR.


    This model has clear implications that when followed consistently have been shown to produce LENR.