nkodama's merged thread - Electrode shape, Neutron and gamma emission, energy transfer to metal lattices in FPE, new nucleus model, Mizuno and the Iwamura patent

  • The total heat generation is mainly determined by the D supply.



    Because FPE use the Pd Rod with very large volume, it takes a long time to introduce in Pd bulk, and it takes very long time to trigger Cold Fusion.

    Oppositely CP method is by far better regarding D supply because they use metal-D stacks with very high D concentration.

    However it need to replace often and the efficiency is very low because Cold Fusion need to control the reaction surface potential control.

    Lately they and I proposed to use the very thin metal film, membrane to supply D from the backside, but this method is very difficult to design the tool and metal plate

    due to the fragility of very thin metal film.

    So I proposed the very thick Ni-D layer on the ceramics(D diffusion barrier) partially open contact to metal plate to control the Ni potential.

    The most important design is to use the counter metal plate and Ni plate with flat parallel plates for the easy control of surface potential.

    This is based on Cold Fusion mechanism.

    and it is also necessary to change the metal plate quickly and easily.

    I need the experimental data on the surface potential of metal and heat generation for the patent,

    so I will license the patent if you offer the data.





    lenr-forum.com/attachment/16231/

  • Very thick High D concentration Ni-D as a reservoir of D

    >The central unit that generates heat is quite simple, a vessel that is divided into two segments separated by the membrane allowing to slowly pass Hydrogen.

    >The heat is generated within the membrane.



    mechanism of CP membrane

    The heat generation is mainly determined by the D supply speed, and D supply from the backside is the bast to eject 4He ash at surface T site.

    However, original methods of CP is metal-D stacking and no control of metal potential so it cannot maximize the heat generation.

    Thus they invented the way similar to mine, very thin metal layer and D supply is from the backside, but I found that this has very bad disadvantage.

    The thin membrane layer is very fragile after D absorption so need to have the supporting structure and D2 gas supply and D2O electrolysis supply the speed seems to be very slow based on my estimation.

    Thus the best way is implementing Ni-D beneath the reaction Ni layer, which is similar to CP, but this single structure can control the metal surface potential.

    As I explained the Cold Fusion occurs in case the metal surface potential is positive, and the reactor need to have the mechanism to control the metal surface potential, however almost all of the current reactor has no good control mechanism.





  • Cold fusion is NOT the conventional fusion because it is softer fusion process based on small D2 fuse with less extra energy to produce high energy gamma ray nor neutron due to excited state of He.

    The mechanism of FPE is different from real Cold Fusion. Thus we need to separate FPE and Cold Fusion. The discussion here might be confused by FPE and Cold Fusion.FPE produce neutron and high energy gamma ray due to the very high temperature fusion triggering to create excited He.

    refer to

    Mechanism of FPE

  • FPE is NOT the real cold fusion. It is just the D absorption under electrolysis condition.

    Fusion occurs under the very special condition as is shown in the fugure. In homogeneous High electric field grow insulating layer on metal with large thuckness variation and the metal region become narrower, the resistance on the metal region becomes higher with longer D charging time and create the local heating and very high local temperature trigger fusion.Thus thus process is difficult to be controlled. Thus we need to understand the mechanism of FPE and real Cold Fusion clearly and separately.


    refer to

    Mechanism of FPE

  • Your work is very interesting, there is for sure ideas, concepts to retain.. BTW more interesting than Mizuno way to me.

    I have had a close look to recent Iwamura's patent too.

    I have to say the same, some ideas are interesting to be retained too.

    As attached file , main chapters i copy/pasted.

    Please read my manuscript

    All in included in my manuscript and mine is correct and others are incorrect.

    reply me in conversation or send me email to

    [email protected]

  • 4.1 Mechanism of FPE (Cold fusion under electrolysis conditions)


    4.1.1 Replication experiment


    Replication experiments using a Pd sheet cathode centered within a Pt-wired anode in a D2O/LiOD electrolyte were conducted by Takahashi et al, [2]. An anomalous heat excess was first observed, and later it was replicated with a much smaller excess heat level.


    To investigate the reproducibility, the second experiment was performed over 4 months with minor changes to the cell design. The excess heat was reproduced, but at much smaller level.


    The authors noticed that the cell voltage in first experiment is anomalously high (~25 V in the beginning and up to ~30 V in the end) compared with those in 2nd Experiment (~14 V in the beginning and very slowly increase up to 20 V after 3 months). This replication experiment showed that the first experiment had much smaller “effective” surface area of Pd cathode than that in the second experiment. The surface analysis of Pd cathode in the first experiment showed the presence of Al-27 and Ca-40 deposits in amounts comparable to that of Li-7. This film can be formed by a high electric field strength of 106 V/cm assisted passive film growth [9]. It was proposed that the thin film grown on Pd surface may play a role of a “current blocking layer” enhancing the cathode over-potential (hence the cell voltage) and increase the cell current resulting in the higher resistance on the current path of Pd.



    4.1.2 Mechanism of FP effect






    Fig.13. Resistivity increase due to dissolved hydrogen during electrolytic charging at 273 t/ksIn ref[42]






    Fig.14. Schematics of FPE mechanism: (A) Experimental setup of Cold fusion cell; (B)-> (C) ->(D) charging with D and evolution of insulator growth.







    As is shown in Fig.13, the resistivity increases with longer D charging time [42].




    I would like to propose my mechanism of FPE based on the replication experiments in [2],[3], and based on the real Cold fusion mechanism, the Pd-D resistance change in Fig.13. The mechanism schematics is presented in Fig.14.

    [2] A. Takahashi, A. Mega, T. Takeuchi, H. Miyamaru and T. Iida, Anomalous excess heat by D2O/Pd Cell under L-H mode electrolysis, Third International Conference on Cold Fusion "Frontiers of Cold Fusion". Nagoya Japan: (Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan, 1992). Also available fromhttps://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/TakahashiAanomalouse.pdf.

    [3] R. Salot, F. Lefebvre-Joud, Electrochemical behavior of thin anodic oxide films on Zircaloy-4, role of the mobile defects, J. Electrochem. Soc., 143 (12) (1996) 3902-3909.http://bbaroux.free.fr/recherc…/1996_JECS_Salot_Zirc.pdf


    Following the replication experiments by Takahashi and the resistance change of Pd-D by Arai et al the sample with better excess heat and higher cell voltage contains the insulating film at Pd rod under the electrolysis conditions. Thus, I think that longer time of D charging causes the higher D concentration, and causes the higher resistance in Reg(a) in Fig.14. The insulating film grown under the high electric field cuts the current path and D diffusion into Pd Rod, therefore the D diffusion proceeds only in the region without the insulating film (Reg(a)). Note that the inhomogeneity of electric field created by Pt wire anode causes the inhomogeneous deposition of the insulating film on Pd Rod. So, the narrower current path and higher resistance of the openings (Reg(a)) in the insulating film on Pd Rod can cause the higher cell voltage due to the constant current mode and positive feedback of higher resistance and higher cell voltage to keep the current constant. Hence, the resistance can be rapidly so high that the local heat generation by higher resistance in Reg(a) in Fig.14 triggers the Cold fusion, because a very high local heat can cause the higher possibility of D+ hopping and can increase the possibility of fusion. Once the fusion occurs locally, the metal temperature increases rapidly and causes a higher fusion probability and the positive feedback resulting in the fusion in all of region with the high Pd-D on Pd Rod.




    The issue of irreproducible excess heat generation on FPE can be caused by the very high stress in the grown insulating film as shown in [3], because, as the author mentioned, the variations in electrode potential (open-circuit conditions), or current density (potentiodynamic scans) can be simply explained by a high field strength of 106 V/cm) assisted the passive film growth. Thus, the cold fusion reactor electrode geometry and configuration among Cold fusion reactors based on FPE are shown in Fig.15.




  • 4.4.5 Neutron and gamma ray emission, and energy transfer to the metal lattice in FPE


    We had a lot of discussion whether Cold fusion is real, and why it is not accompanies by the neutron and gamma ray emission. Skeptics insist that Fusion requires the large dose of neutrons and gamma-rays to transfer heat to the metal lattice, however they completely misunderstand the Cold fusion and FPE mechanism. They suggest on the hot fusion reaction path as below:


    D+D[4He*]τ 10-21s

    • 3He(0.8MeV) +n(2.45MeV): 50%
    • T(1MeV) + p(3MeV): 50%
    • 4He(76keV) +γ(23.8MeV): 10-5%

    Note that above reaction channel occurs via the excited state of 4He under the hot fusion conditions, however, Cold fusion occurs by small atoms or small D2, so no extra energy is needed and the reaction is softer than hot fusion. In opposite, FPE sometimes needs a very high temperature to trigger the fusion, and in such case 4He can have a larger energy and may emit neutrons and gamma rays. The heat transfer can be done via the 4He energy based on lattice confinement [8],[9], and the heat transfer to H2O coolant can proceed by hot 4He ejected from the surface T sites. Therefore, the heat generation efficiency is very high because the D supply can be maximized.

    The below schematic is the mechanism of Cold Fusion and it is very soft due to the complete coulomb repulsive force shielding.

    Scientist always use the theory of Hot Fusion but Cold Fusion is not Hot Fusion and Not FPE, so they completely misunderstand the mechanism.




  • Americans are all never stupid especially then business is involved.

    They are not going to buy things that don't work, or only a little business potential.

    My good information tells me that Mizuno is above all a lot of comm, the results are not so famous but they do exist.

    That IH is rushing to buy or try to buy even not mature Lenr technologies is strange.

    As an explanation, I will see that the fossil energies lobby which drives IH. Its target would be only to slow down the Lenr as long as possible.

    Firstly I strongly recommend you to read my report on Cold Fusion.

    ===>change to

    you should read my latest post on Mizuno's patent.

    I think it is very good as a patent, because it fixes the issue of FPE with D2O electrolysis by using D2 gas loading with the same tool configuration.

    I am quite sure that mine is correct for D2O(switching D absorption to Cold Fusion) and work well based on the experimental result of RF input which shows that my mechanism is correct.Mizno's patent of RF Cold fusion(RF electrolysis) became meaningless with a lot of restriction on claims.

    My mechanism is that FPE is just D absorption and real cold fusion need D absorption before Cold Fusion and Cold Fusion need the positive metal surface potential and this proved by RF input experiments whch switches D absorption and Cold Fusion in time.

    FPE


    RF INPUT??????



    Looks like Iwamura thin film method, and Iwamura is among the inventors as I read the patent.

    =>

    If you are talking about thin membrane patent, it dose not work as I explained that this metal film is so fragile that it need the support in my invention elsewhere.

    So I changed the way to implement very thick resoivior Ni-D under reaction Ni, or very thin reservior(Ni) so that it is easily saturated.

    BUt I think that they believe it will work because I thought it will work at the patent application.

  • Alan Smith

    Changed the title of the thread from “Neutron and gamma ray emission, and energy transfer to the metal lattice in FPE” to “nkodama's merged thread - Neutron and gamma emission, energy transfer to the metal lattice in FPE”.
  • Mechanism of nano- powder


    Probably the small volume the D absorption faster and closer to the reaction surface.


    Because only a small amount of nano-particle occurs cold fusion because the electric field is shielded by the nano-particle in the mist surface location to electrode.


    Advantage may be small volume of nano-particle which D concentration easily saturated and reach faster to the reaction surface. But disadvantage is the native/high electric induced insulator, which hinder the ejection of 4He ash.


    Continuous Cold Fusion need the free surface without insulator to eject 4He ash at surface T site.

    Thus efficiency is actually very low, and I think this can be a key to improve other reactor as is shown in

    lenr-forum.com/forum/thread/6539/


  • Alan Smith

    Changed the title of the thread from “nkodama's merged thread - Neutron and gamma emission, energy transfer to the metal lattice in FPE” to “nkodama's merged thread - Electrode shape, Neutron and gamma emission, energy transfer to the metal lattice in FPE”.
  • Current nucleus model is that neutron and proton composes the nucleus, But this is incorrect, and the old model seems to be correct,

    which is that proton and electron tightly bounded to proton compose the nucleus. This model there used to be no neutron, but after the introduction of neutron almost all of the researcher forgot this model.

    But latest experimental result show that Electron Deep orbit exists from the research on the high comprehensibility of hydrogen negative ion, which shows the hydrogen orbit electron transition from n=1 to n=0(deep electron orbit) and the size of hydrogen becomes smaller.


    Another experimental result is soft-x-ray spectra shows the theoretical calculation matches with spectra at 500eV and less than 100eV.

    This spectra is very important because it shows the broader peak at500eV, which is the deepest orbit of n=0.

    This indicates that the deepest electron orbit has the very wide energy deviation.


    Thus I search for the proton shape report to find the proton structure made by quarks, and the latest report shows that proton is not true spherical shape but

    proton has the fine structure caused by 3 quarks.



    Thus I thin that the old model can be correct because at the time of introduction of neutron,old model was rejected because there was no experimental evidence of electron in electron deep orbit,

    But now we have the experimental evidence of existence of EDO.

    Based on the model of proton with electron in EDO is "neutron", the beta decay mechanism is that protrusion of proton cause the wider energy deviation and cause the instability of electron at the protrusion and cause the beta decay of "neutron", with very wide electron energy distribution.




    Summary

    The Old nucleus model must be revived and it can explain the mechanism of Cold Fusion.

    This old nucleus model revival is the top priority on the nuclear physics.

    Above model we do not have neutrino.


    I posted this mechanism and nucleus structure model to Physical Review C.

    This is important to show that no neutrino exists. neutrino was made to explain the larger electron energy distribution, but this model can explain that larger energy distribution.


  • Curbina

    Changed the title of the thread from “nkodama's merged thread - Electrode shape, Neutron and gamma emission, energy transfer to the metal lattice in FPE” to “nkodama's merged thread - Electrode shape, Neutron and gamma emission, energy transfer to the metal lattice in FPE, new nucleus model”.
  • Used the highest metal plate heat generation efficiency(10kW/1m2) and the narrowest spacing of 5cmbetween metal plate( need to have counter electrode between metal plate.,

    So the actual size is 1MWh/10m3

    which is comparable with E-CAT size(this image is older and if you know the latest image please reply this.

    I think E-CAT efficiency is by far better that I thought.

    It is really excellent with nano-particle which can have no voltage connection to electrode,.

    I think that It is amazingly good.

  • >he is close to your understanding however not exactly the same way

    It is important that nano-particle mechanism and cold FPE, Cold Fusion mechanism.

    I think nano-particle works, it can be improved with technique to apply the voltage to nano particle(structure), by the special design of electrode, which I am thinking now. So I think that it is better to use nano particle fuels, which mechanism is unknown for now, but need to understand the mechanism of nano-particle.

    The below is one of my solution to improve the heat generation efficiency to fabricate nano roughness by semiconductor fabrication technique of nano-imprinter with very low cost.

    The heat generation is mainly determined by the captura trate of D at reaction site and D supply rate, and capture rate at reaction site is determined by nano-roughness or nano-particle surface feature with curvature, where the it is easier to be expaneded on the surface of the curvature.



    The above is the mechanism of nano-particle or nano roughness improve the capture rate at surface reaction site(T site).

    Thus this structure can be fabricated on the flat plate so it must improve the capture rate.

    I think most experiment of flat metal plate with very flat surface so the capture rate should be very low.

    So Firstly, it is very simple to run experiment with nano-roughness by electroplating etc with no patterning.

    I am sure that proper process can be develop but first experiment can be simpler with less cost, so I hope a researchers try the metal plate with rough surface.


    The above is the nano corn with sputtering nano-roughness on the sidewall of nano-corn.

    It can be fabricated with nano-imprinter.

    Once the fabrication process is developed, the price of the metal nano-structure seems to be cheap witn nano-imprinter techniques.

    This has the great advantage to control the nano-roughness surface potential.



    What his understanding is on the cold fusion generally?

    Cold fusion occurs by the small atoms or small D2, and this is the issue of nuclear physics, not only Cold Fusion society.

    I explain below.

    This is very important because nuclear physics must change the nucleus model, not by us.

    Abstract

    Rutherford already suggested in 1920 that electron-proton could be bound in a tight state, After Chadwick's discovery of the neutron in 1932, there were a lot of discussions about whether it is an elementary particle or a hydrogen-like atom formed from electron and proton, and in the end, Pauli's argument won that the neutron spin-1/2 follows Fermi-Dirac statistics, and it decided that the neutron is indeed an elementary particle.

    The purpose of this report is to update the latest experimental data to prove a hydrogen-like atom formed from electron to a proton, which we call small hydrogen with electron in electron deep orbit(n=0). The high compressibility of hydrogen was found by researcher, which I presumed that it is caused by the electron transition from n=1 to n=0.

    During LENR caused by the mechanical compression in the metal space site, the soft-x-ray is measured during LENR and it showed the electron transition from n=1 to n=0, the peak position is matched with theoretical calculation except the broader width at the largest energy at 500eV.

    The latest proton shape profile experiment shows that proton is non-true spherical shape but has the protrusion by three quarks. Based on these experimental data I presumed that the deep electron orbit or small hydrogen exists and it must have the very broad energy distribution by protrusion on proton surface caused by three quarks Thus we must discuss again on the original nucleus model by Rutherford et al.

      Author, an abstract should be a short and concise summary of the main results presented in the paper, and it should be limited to one paragraph. I have combined all of this text into one paragraph, but it is much too long, and it is not limited to a summary of the results.

  • For home unit of cold fusion, it is convenient and safer to used D2O for loading D into metal.

    and the cost of D2O is high, it is needed to keep the quality of D2O.

    Thus, changing from D2O for D loading to H2O for cooling is by far better, and the reaction area can be doubled.


    To increase the reaction area with metal plate can be done by the special structure of plate with comb fin.

    From the good data of nano-particle, I think that the trigger of cold fusion is important and the total surface area is also important.

    Thus, It can be done by the metal structure.