Ken Shoulders ; The Man Who Made Black Holes

  • Adrian Ashfield Glad you like it - we have been cleaning house somewhat. All who stay civil and have some interesting technical insights (now and then) are welcome wherever they stand on the main issues. And, just a reminder - we do not cover climate science in any shape or form. Your last link was not about GW of course, but I am just offering a reminder.

  • So what we can actually conclude from that:


    Exactly how that final plunge happens still rankles astrophysicists. The black holes must be losing orbital energy; otherwise they would circle forever, like a perpetual motion machine. Simulations suggest that they should be shedding most of their energy in the form of gravitational waves. So why hasn’t anyone found the gravitational wave background yet?

    There are plenty of possible explanations. Maybe supermassive black holes aren’t so common after all, or perhaps it takes galaxies and their black holes longer to merge than astrophysicists thought. Maybe nearby gas or the kinetic slingshot action of nearby stars speeds up the process, and the gravitational waves to quickly slip out of detectable range. Or perhaps the black holes prefer egg-shaped orbits over circular ones, leading them to merge more quickly. Pulsar timing array measurements aren’t yet able to discriminate between these scenarios, but as the experiments continue, researchers hope to be able to zero in on the likeliest explanations."

    Very helpful.

  • The situation when contradicting theories are both correct are current scientific norm. Is there dark matter or not? Who cares we have explanation for both and you are free to use or not use dark matter as long as your data model fits nicely observable metric.

  • I can of course only speculate on the reasons.

    • It was never intended to work as claimed;
    • It never really produced excess energy, but the inventor realized it too late (measurement error);
    • Unpredicted effects resulted from the reactor operating as intended, causing the inventor to eventually die of illness;
    • TPTB?

    In all seriousness, if the inventor is still alive it would help clarifying things up to contact him for details about any ongoing work; if he died (he doesn't look very healthy in the photos after all), if any relative could provide more background behind his efforts, although I would not expect a prompt response on the subject, if any at all.

    The concept of Lawrence Nelson's technology seems solid to me, and we have someone who alledged a total COP of 5 from the system in a third party lab. I expect that Lawrence Nelson was either bought off or had a retroactive secrecy order slapped on him after the powers that be realized that his tech worked. I know for an absolute fact there have been military labs that continually ask around for leads on exotic energy or propulsion technologies. His was probably too good to allow to be commercialized openly.

  • I found this excerpt from the paper at Alan's link fascinating, and an explanation of why Andrea Rossi may need such a high amount of active cooling in his power supply. Please note that Paulo and Alexandra Correa noticed the same effect with their Pulsed Abnormal Glow Discharge Generator and the Russian physicist (Alexander "something) that Harold Puthoff went to go see burnt out a power station with his backwards AC spikes.

    Colgate's results showed clearly that the neutrons proceeding in the anode-cathode direction were, on the average, definitely of higher energy than the neutrons proceeding in the cathode during the pinch, and, therefore, that deuterons were average, the center of mass of the pairs of reacting deuterons in the reaction D(D,n) He3 was moving from the anode to the cathode during the pinch, and, that therefore, deuterons were being accelerated in the anode-cathode direction and reacting with other deuterons which had not been so accelerated and were thus acting as targets. It was hypothesized that a rapidly


    pinching sausage instability in the channel produced a high back electromotive force (=-IdL/dt) and that the resulting choking of the current built up a high positive potential toward the anode and a high negative potential toward the cathode end of the pinched channel. (Such high voltage spikes from the back EMF could be seen on the oscilloscopes which recorded the voltage signals from capacitance dividers.) These high potentials were thought to be able to accelerate a few of the deuterons into other deuterons to produce the neutrons. X-rays (approximately 5 kev to 200 kev) were also generated simultaneously with the neutrons. At any rate the results showed that energetic deuterium ions (and electrons) did not represent a thermal ensemble, and therefore the fusion reactions were judged to be nonthermonuclear and hence theologically "impure" as far as the CTR program was concerned. These results were a chastening blow to the ardor of those people working on the pinch effect at Los Alamos.

    Here is another quote.

    The Soviet results told of neutrons and xrays and voltage spikes from their pinch effect apparatus which was similar to that in use in the USA.

  • Here's another quote from the paper:

    "The very high I i | peaks at "pinch time" and the very high voltage peaks on the electrodes (5x the voltage originally applied) are very likely due to the rapid destruction of these current-carrying filaments with their local Bz's. It is as if the "super conducting" filaments had suddenly lost their superconductivity; since their local Bz's have been destroyed, they must suddenly face the authority of the Alfven limit."

    This tells us at least two things that have been confirmed by Shoulders, the Correa's, and other researchers. First, the structure of an EVO is superconducting, carrying a gigantic current. Secondly, upon destruction a huge voltage spike can appear. My guess is that this strike will be of higher intensity with more energy dense spheromaks such as those produced by Shoulders or the E-Cat QX.

  • This pdf covers the work of Bostick, who was around long before KS started work in the field. See page 20 for more direct comments on the nature of plasmoids. Bostick also wrote an article for 'Scientific American' in 1956(?) entitled 'Plasmoids' which seems to be paywalled for me. If anybody has access, I would love to see a copy.

    Alan Smith

    Bostick was indeed way ahead of his time, thanks for sharing. For those interested in the rebirth of this field, here are recent articles that I found much interesting:

    all published in Physics in Plasma but behind a paywall (they are also available on sci-hub or libgen though the latter may be forbidden/blocked in some countries). Finally, for those interested in a highly controversial model of the electron that fits in with other helical/zitterbewegung views of the electron, I highly recommend the paper that Bostick wrote in Physics Essays a few months before his death in 1991: Mass, Charge, and Current: The Essence and Morphology, Physics Essays, 1991 (I only have a print copy, maybe someone can find an electronic copy).

  • We need that document! It is very important! Here is the abstract.


  • The link says.......At any rate the results showed that energetic deuterium ions (and electrons) did not represent a thermal ensemble, and therefore the fusion reactions ....were judged to be nonthermonuclear and hence theologically "impure" as far as the CTR program was concerned. These results were a chastening blow to the ardor of those people working on the pinch effect at Los Alamos.

    Plus ca change, plus c'est la meme chose.

  • We need that document! It is very important! Here is the abstract.


    I would not be so exited about this paper.

    "All mass, momentum, and energy are electromagnetic in character" is going wrong direction. All energy is kinetic.

    You should be able to see that yourself since you said you like the ether theories.

    I would suggest to read material. Despite his controversial status his explanation of charge, gravity, spins helps to bring physics home. There is no need to use ether surrogates like fibers in this paper.

    I believe many will like Miles article on Stern-Gerlach experiment explaining how sci-fi things like fractional spins were invented.

  • Don’t be afraid of the toxicity of mercury during experiments. You have probably more mercury in your mouth than on your benchtop. (The dental amalgam are an alloy of 50% silver and 50% mercury)

    During all you life, it release mercury vapour in your mouth.


    Here is a marking Matsumoto published long ago that I think is beautiful. That marking seems to show behavior reminiscent of how whirlwinds and tornadoes scrape the ground and hop. I wrote an article about this in the 1990s.

    Instead of writing out all kinds of ideas about how to model these microbl plasmoids, and definitely instead of believing or accepting any particular model as valid based on your limited understanding of plasmoid behavior, I want to encourage people to focus on the physical evidence and think about whether a model fits all known plasmoid behavior including galactic and astrophysical plasmoid behavior. If the model doesn't fit, then it isn't a valid model. For example, consider whether a model can explain how a plasmoid behaved like the one did that made that marking.

    It would be great if people could get some new results past the point reached by Shoulders as evidenced from his published articles last decade. Technology has advanced since then. Perhaps experimental techniques utilizing video cameras and good telefocal lenses would help people capture plasmoid activity in real time.

    Of various methods people might use to research plasmoids, people seem to get the best results per time and effort spent via doing discharge experiments. It seems the easiest method to learn to do to make plasmoids.

    It would be so cool if someone could video the little plasmoids. Also cool if an experiment is preformed with target sheets showing how the little plasmoids make tracks. That means that someone has to learn how to image the plasmoid markings quickly and be able to show the tracks on a monitor or something for real-time results. Doing things like like would help people to get past the point of disbelief or agnosticism they seem to be in such as if they watch plasmoid marks being made real time.

    Finding the little markings with a microscope is time consuming and not suitable for a live demonstration unless someone practices the technique adequately.

  • Good sleuthing. I suggest the next step is to email those addresses you found?

    BTW, I just spent the thick end of $100 on the Pulsed Abnormal Glow Discharge (PAGD) DVD from the Coreea's Aetherometry website, delivery around 2 weeks they say. Let's hope it is of some interest.

    Please let us know if it contains anything of worth.

  • Matsumoto was able to visually see plasmoids form and move. They moved slowly enough he could watch them through a his telescope. If people could attach a very fast camera, that would be good video.

    Ken Shoulders used his type of discharge apparatus to make his EVOs, but he understood that macroscopic ball lightning we can see and watch (sometimes they are stationary) are the same thing as his little EVOs (except bigger). Matsumoto used a difference kind of apparatus, and someone might want to try to replicate his experiments.

    I know that people seem to be thinking that these are necessarily very fast moving objects, but even various kinds of lightning move at different speeds, and lightning bolts are all led by big ball lightning. Plasmoids can change speed, change direction, accelerate, slow, stop. They have fascinating motions. I saw a ball lightning about 2 years ago. It moved slowly enough for me to see although it lasted only a second or less (from the time I saw it).


    I remember that in the 1990s, Matsumoto faxed me a report of slow moving plasmoids that left a hexagonal mark or plate on acrylite film he used to capture the tracts. In his fax, there was a blurry black hexagonal mark, blown up, and I was thinking it was the same picture that I posted on another thread last month and reposted above. That picture was published in the ICCF-5 proceedings, but maybe it wasn't the same picture.

    I think people focus too much on talking about models and plasmoid structure and not enough on experimental evidence that has already been published and not on actually doing experiments. More experiments are needed to gather the evidence that allows us to understand their structure and behavior. I think no model I've seen so far works, but I appreciate those such as Lutz Jaitner's that attempt to explain how atoms change state from regular matter to plasmoid matter.

    However, it is very important if anyone wants to make some kind of model or theory of plasmoids, to study all the available evidence. Parkomov's newly published research is very interesting. I would be interested in learning more about them.

    The key concept that people have to understand is that regular atoms that are dormant plasmoids can change state to be active plasmoids of the various range of states from black to white. I could say a lot about what I think about individual models and how they fail.

    Ed Lewis,

    I keep offering my book on the site as a good place to get information about the development of the CF field and this micro ball lightning field I started in the context of 80-year paradigm changes. That book contains the information I thought was pertinent and interesting that was published up until about 1995. Most of the book was written before1995 actually. But it explains how I realized that little ball lightning objects were being produced in Matsumoto's experiments and how they were responsible for transmuted matter. The book has four or five parts. These parts cover my theory about physics paradigm change and how the 3 paradigm changes from Franklin to Einstein each produced the industrial revolutions that happened at the 80 to 100 year intervals. One part is a history of science from before 1506 up to about 1996. Two sections cover the theory about how the industrial revolutions each have caused two types of economic depressions. This model that dates from the late 1980s worked for accurately predicting the 2008 to 2009 crash. If you are interested in plasmoids or the history of the field of plasmoids, you can read my book. There is a paypal button that will allow for automatic download of the book in html format. People have posted comments or questions about my theory of paradigm change and economic depressions, but if people are interested in this, they should read my writings. There are a lot of published articles about both topics (economics and physics theory) you can read on the site too.

  • "BTW, I just spent the thick end of $100 on the Pulsed Abnormal Glow Discharge (PAGD) DVD from the Correa's Aetherometry website, delivery around 2 weeks they say. Let's hope it is of some interest."

    IMHO - a complete waste of money. Flaky old low-rez video and rather gabbled speech.

  • Ed Lewis , you seem intelligent and coherent, and your remarks about needing more experimental evidence before getting into model building are apt. It seems to me that you would be more effective at communicating your ideas about plasmoids if you separated that discussion from the discussion of 80 year paradigm changes. I do not see how combining them (e.g., in your book) can help, as the 80-year-paradigm claim is a challenging one for people; i.e., it is tendentious. (I assume that your plasmoid claims are challenging as well, but I am not familiar enough with them to have more than an impression.)

  • Everybody, please see my new post about the current depressionary or deep recessionary era under the Plasmoid Paradigm thread.

    Eric, the credit for these ideas go to the Creator because when I was in my 20s I asked the LORD for the knowledge about this Plasmoid paradigm and also how scientific revolutions in physics causes the Kondratiev wave. He answered my prayer I think. Thank God.

    I could relate how God led me to the right book to understand this whole cycle: Paul Waters' TECHNOLOGICAL ACCELERATION AND THE GREAT DEPRESSION and how one night while reading Matsumoto describe how he found circular marks on his acrylate sheets after his electrolysis transmutation experiments, I had a vision sort of or could imagine how microscopic ball lightning were inside his electrodes causing the transmutation and the voids in his electrode.

    Of course, I usually separate the two sciences, but sometimes I want to tell people I have a coherent model that explains the paradigm shifts in physics and that the timing of this plasmoid paradigm, if it develops, falls in the timing rightly.

  • Those wanting to know about plasmoid theory, micro ball lighting, physics paradigm shifts and Kondtratiev waves should read my book that was written in thte early 1980s. If you have questions about micro ball lightning, what it has to do with transmutation, the plasmoid paradigm theory, the plasmoid state of matter and how Kondratiev waves arise due to the technological impulses due to paradigm shifts in physics at 80 year intervals, read my book ( that was written in the 1990s about these things. That does a good job explaining these ideas, and then if people have questions or comments or want me to teach you about it, ask me and I'll explain and try to teach the ideas to you as I can.

    To me, it is a simple to understand that physics develops through basic theory paradigm shifts and scientific revolutions. I understood this since I was a kid.

    If you don't believe this idea, read The Structure of Scienctific Revolutions. Many of the basic ideas are basically his ideas. Thomas Kuhn explained what a paradigm shift is in physics and how they necessarily arise through the work of successive generations (since a formulator has to be young or inexperienced to formulate a theory for a paradigm) and his ideas arise through the experimental discoveries of other more experienced and older people. His book, The Structure of Scienctific Revolutions, was widely read and accepted, so that is a good source of information.

    Kuhn defined which the paradigm shifts in physics were and when they occurred, but he didn't realize that they happen at a periodic rate.

    In my study of the history of science, I found the paradigm shifts he identified happened at about 73 to 87 years or 80 years on average. Then I started to describe the model of how the paradigm shifts tie to economic depressions. It is simple and intuitive.

    The physics paradigm shifts Kuhn describes, Copernican, Galilean, Newtonian, Franklin (with electrical theory and experiments, he did seem to know about Franklin's fundamental ideas about magnetism and his theory of heat (caloric)), Faraday (electromagnetism and the development of Field Theory), and Einstein (QM and Relativity theory), actually occurred in regular approximately 80-year intervals. See the charts I've posted on this blog.

    Some key evidence that the theory I'm proposing is accurate is that decades before I wrote that this decade would be a depressionary era similar to the 1930s with a crash about 2009. A valid theory has provable predictions. It is obvious this is a depressionary era; witness the substantial debt creation.

    I think that these original ideas from the early 1990s about micro ball lightning and plasmoids and their effects have been borne out. I first had the idea of micro ball lightning in 1992. As far as I am aware, no one ever wrote about micrometer-sized and smaller ball lightning before I did. I introduced the ideas that micro ball lightning exists and that they are plasmoids, that micro plasmoids are what caused the voids, pits, tunnels and traces (tracks) in Matsumoto's electrode and nuclear emulsion particle detection films, and tried to explain how these processes happened. I also first proposed that these same processes and effects occur in natural macro ball lightning.

    Another key conception I introduced is the idea of the plasmoid state of matter as another state of matter different from the regular dormant state or the plasma state of matter. No one published this idea before me either.

    I also better defined how ball lightning is able to do things such as pass through glass windows and other materials without making holes. They do this by state shifting between dark and white states. Shoulders explained this too.

    Since I first started writing about this model of plasmoids and matter in the early 1990s, two other states of matter were discovered: BE condensates and Fermi condensates. I think the idea of the plasmoid state of matter merges into these two other states.

    One criticism or question about micro plasmoids and their role in transmutation/energy effects discovered in our field is whether they are responsible for all energy creation and transmutation in various experiments. Even some scientists who acknowledge their existence and association with transmutation due to the fact that so many different people have discovered the characteristic micro plasmoid markings in their experimental setups don't believe that plasmoids are responsible for all the energy produced and transmuted species in many experiments.

    I think the plasmoid state of matter explains this. Atoms in material can convert to a plasmoid state without flying off the material or causing much noticeable morphological change and then revert back to the dormant state. So people won't find the pits, tunnels and plasmoid markings, but the atoms in a plasmoid state due transmute to other elemental species and isotopes.

    Dash's filaments from his research in the 1990s are a good example. The morphological change of the filaments growing on a used electrode as it sat for weeks happened very slowly. Only by using a microscope and performing chemical analysis did they notice the chemical and morphological changes over time as they took successive photographs. That material was in a plasmoid state, and the effects would have gone unnoticed except for their sharp perception. (see my article:

    Others have described similar "heat after death" effects. In the 1990s, Indian researchers were reporting that their electrodes continued to be radioactive and radiate energy long after their experiments were over. It was because the atoms were still in the plasmoid state. It would be interesting to know how long the materials continued in the state or when they became dormant. Could people tell me? It has been two decades since those experiments. Are the anomalous morphological changes and radiation continuing?

    If you are interested in studying transmutation but haven't read Matsumoto's transmutation articles from his research in 1990 and 1991, you're missing a lot of important information. He was one of the leaders in the transmutation field.

    The micro ball lightning-like plasmoids have been discovered in all kinds of experiments as I predicted people would discover them in my earliest papers. After Matsumoto and Shoulders, Urutskoev and other Russian groups detected their markings. A few years ago, Priem performed good analysis on plasmoid markings following up on Urutskoev's research. Among the latest reports are by Parkhomov who says he is studying Rossi type experiments and obtained good photographs of the plasmoid markings.

    To see what I mean, see Alan Smith's quote here. (For some reason, I can't just cut and paste the link itself.) I think btw that this recent powerpoint from Aleksandr Parkhomov is very relevant to the topic of 'strange radiation'.…dyvV00iA/edit#slide=id.p5

    It is obvious to me that these microplasmoids are found everywhere. If they are not detected, people should be able to detect the atoms in a plasmoid state in various ways. These active plasmoid-state atoms can be produced from sparking and electrical discharge. It is telling that many of the purported energy creation/transmutation methods either involve discharge or electrical input directly or are composed of key parts that were manufactured by electrical discharge such as Miley's thin-film coated microspheres from the 1990s. As I've shown, both the microspheres and the lexan casings as well as the electrodes showed lots and lots of plasmoid marks (see the articles from the middle 1990s on my site: "Photographs of Some Components of an Electrolysis Cell" and "Additional Plasmoid Marks on Electrolysis Cells" to see the pictures and more information.) I suspect that plasmoid state atoms were loaded onto the microspheres during the thin film deposition by sputtering.

    A scientific revolution regarding plasmoids is happening (if the development continues), but most researchers and experimenters seem oblivious or ignorant about it. Lutz Jaitner is doing good research investigating and modeling the plasmoid state atoms from the standpoint of QM, and Henry-Couannier F. (The Dark side of Gravity and LENR, J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 21, (2016), p 59 is doing a good job investigating their relativistic effects and understanding them from a relativistic viewpoint.

    If you want to understand about plasmoids, get my book, and I can teach you about it and answer questions personally if you contact me. My email is on my site. Edward Lewis