**Jean-Francois Geneste, author of this philosophical paper is a scientist and engineer, and a regular regular attendee at cold fusion conferences. **

**The implications of considering so-called “elementary” or “fundamental” particles . ****Jean-François Geneste January 2023**

**Abstract**

In this paper we tackle the question of the consequences of the assumption that elementary particles exist. We work in the framework of the existence of fields, while this raises some conceptual problems which are explained. In that context, we show that the existence of an elementary particle for a given field (gravitation, electric, etc.) brings to the existence of a well-founded binary relation. We then apply the axiom of dependent choice and come to the conclusion that the world needs to be discrete and finite. Finally, we raise the question according to which noticing, from maybe inaccurate measuring tools, that the world is discrete and finite might imply the existence of elementary particles, bringing us into a circular reasoning. To get out of the trap, we should, in such a case, abandon the assumption of the existence of fundamental particles and come back to equivalence classes, to be defined as the bricks of physics as Wigner wrote in his celebrated paper.