USEFUL PAPERS THREAD

  • I am proposing that we start a new thread to contain useful or unusual papers, as links or pdf's as a resource for members. The useful book thread already contains information on many aspects- particularly practical aspects - of LENR experimentation and the engineering requirements associated with it. This proposed thread will hopefully contain more theoretical and directly experimental works which might not otherwise be accessible to members.


    If anybody wishes to comment on this pleas do so.

  • posted at Ecatworld


    Wow

    Not sure where to put this new strange radiation paper...

    Re reading it.

    Spin Supercurrent as a “Strange” Radiation in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions

    Liudmila B. Boldyreva

    Spin Supercurrent as a “Strange” Radiation in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions
    The numerous experiments in which the features of Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) were researched show that the emergence of new chemical elements in the…
    pubs.sciepub.com

  • Cold fusion is best served as a multidisciplinary art of science. Fairly new fields such as plasmonics, nano physics and metamaterial science lend insight. I would be remiss in not including the study of Terahertz EUV and VUV radiation, possibly essential to advanced sensing and control of fission, fusion and other transmutation pathways found in the nuclear reactive environment of CMNS systems. I'm a layman, interested in all arts relevant to LENR including high energy physics found on a nano scale.

    The 'forbidden/unknown' terahertz band has recently been opened through advanced physics and engineering. This paper is from the fourth international terahertz conference, perhaps relevant to understanding of EVO's and micro ball lighting...


    17 November 2020

    "Prospects of the Gas-discharge EUV Source Based on the Plasma Creation by Powerful Pulsed Terahertz Gyrotrons"

    Prospects of the gas-discharge EUV source based on the plasma creation by powerful pulsed terahertz gyrotrons
    Previous experiments performed in IAP RAS showed the possibility of realizing a localized (characteristic size not more than 1 mm in diameter) discharge in an…
    www.spiedigitallibrary.org


    Proceedings Volume 11582, Fourth International Conference on Terahertz and Microwave Radiation: Generation, Detection, and Applications; 115820P (2020)


    Prospects of the gas-discharge EUV source based on the plasma creation by powerful pulsed terahertz gyrotrons
    Previous experiments performed in IAP RAS showed the possibility of realizing a localized (characteristic size not more than 1 mm in diameter) discharge in an…
    doi.org

    Event: Fourth International Conference on Terahertz and Microwave Radiation: Generation, Detection, and Applications, 2020, Tomsk, Russian Federation


    Abstract

    Previous experiments performed in IAP RAS showed the possibility of realizing a localized (characteristic size not more than 1 mm in diameter) discharge in an inhomogeneous gas flow by focused sub-terahertz radiation beam. Plasma with an overcritical density up to 3·1016 cm - 3 was obtained. In these experiments, discharge glow was observed both in the range of vacuum (VUV) and extreme (EUV) ultraviolet. The performed experiments demonstrated that in order to increase the yield of EUV, the shorter wavelengths of heating radiation must be used. According to estimations, if the 1 THz radiation with power of several kilowatts is in a good coupling with the plasma, the plasma density will substantially exceed 1016 cm - 3 with electron temperature of the level of 50 eV. This should provide extreme ultraviolet glow of the discharge with power of about 100 W in the range 13-17 nm for xenon.

  • "Nuclear Reactions at Low Energies in Condensed Medium"



    Here AX is a nucleus of mass number A and

    we will assume that A is relatively large. In

    this process a deuteron nucleus reacts with a

    heavy nucleus AX to produce an isotope A+1X

    with emission of a proton and two photons.

    It happens through a capture of neutron by

    the nucleus AX. To be specific, here we shall

    consider X to be the nucleus 58Ni.


    A detailed calculation of the resulting pro-

    cess reveals that the process gives appreciable

    rates only if the final state proton energy is rel-

    atively small, of the order of an eV or less. The

    reason for this is physically clear. By momen-

    tum conservation, it is only in this region that

    the intermediate state energy, and hence the

    neutron energy, can be of the order less than

    an eV. With such low energies, the neutron de

    Broglie wave length can be sufficiently large

    to be comparable to R0, which is a measure

    of the distance between deuteron and 58Ni in

    the initial state. We find that the rates are

    small, but observable in a condensed medium.

    The reaction leads to two photon emission in

    coincidence and can be tested cleanly in a lab-

    oratory.

  • Options for a Regulatory Framework for Fusion Energy Systems

    United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 2021

    https://www.nrc.gov/docs/ML2111/ML21118A081.pdf


    The UK Government’s Proposals for a Regulatory Framework for Fusion Energy

    UK Government’s Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, 2021

    https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/1022286/towards-fusion-energy-uk-government-proposals-regulatory-framework-fusion-energy.pdf

  • Hello Greg, good to hear from you, I hope you are well.


    Post the rather flat demo, we decided to put new Rossi comments into the 'Playground' thread which the share with the Covid discussion.


    If we get some independent test possibilities following sales, then we will re-open new dedicated Rossi thread(s) straightaway

  • Very nice 1986 paper from Winston Bostick, the father of EVO research on plasma dynamics. Brought to my attention by Thunderbolts Forum.


    https://www.plasmauniverse.info/downloads/Bostick1986-IEEE-CosmicStructures.pdf


    ABSTRACT.


    The tradition of the classical 1901 work by Birkeland [1]

    on aurora phenomena by laboratory terrella experiments was resumed

    by Alfven [2], Cowling [3], Ferraro et al. [4], and by Bennett [5] in his

    terrella experiments. In 1954 [6] when experimenters accidentally produced in the laboratory structures later identified as diamagnetic vortex filaments, and in 1961 [7] when filaments, later identified as current-carrying paramagnetic plasma vortex structures (which are both

    electric motors and dynamos), were observed in the Z and theta-pinch

    experiments, this tradition was being further reestablished. It has been

    successfully argued [6], [8], [11], [20] that both of these types of vortices are force-free minimum-free-energy structures that spontaneously spring to life as readily as do thousands of spherical bubbles

    and water droplets during the splash of a breaking water wave. The

    Birkeland aurora filaments are a hybrid combination of these two basic

    types (paramagnetic and diamagnetic) of plasma vortices. It is to be

    expected that such structures on a cosmic scale play an important role

    in the cosmos, and indeed they do in the formation of galaxies, stars,

    binary stars, solar systems, solar prominences, solar flares, solar wind,

    comet tails, cosmic "strings" in the Crab nebula, string-like galactic

    clusters, expansion of the Universe, giant galactic jets, cosmic rays,

    sunspots, vortex rolls in sunspot penumbra, twinkling of radio stars

    by the density fluctuations in the ionosphere, turbulence at the interface between the solar wind and the earth's magnetosphere, etc. The

    penchant that Nature displays in carrying electric current via forcefree filaments in laboratory-produced and cosmic plasmas provided in

    1958 an otherwise overlooked filamentary or string-like hypothesis

    concerning the morphology of the electron (and other fermions) as it

    produces its spin magnetic moment, and deBroglie waves. The result

    of the development is an electrical engineer's model of the fermion and

    the photon and other onta in which all mass and momentum (including

    spin) consist of E and H vectors (lump mass is banished) and the quantum mechanical wave functions are transverse waves on the filament.

    Also in these simple heuristic models of elementary onta (particles),

    without the help of a gauge theory or the Kaluza-Klein theory, the

    search for grand unification of the strong force of the nucleus, the electromagnetic force, the electroweak force, and the gravitational force

    can find a solution based on electromagnetism (with self-gravity). In

    particular, gravity is merged with electromagnetic phenomena.

    The results of the MOA*N group in Munich are briefly mentioned,

    in which they claim to have produced tau mesons and gluons....

  • Understanding low energy nuclear reactions - January 2021


    Péter Kálmán Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Tamás Keszthelyi, David J Nagel


    Abstract


    This paper reviews a theoretical program to understand the field of low energy nuclear reactions (LENR), initially called cold fusion, which was a puzzle of the last three decades. A series of concepts, which were raised and partly elaborated, are presented. The key concept is a three-body mechanism, where one of the nuclei serves as a catalyst for the reaction of the other two. In these reactions, a single fusion product or two outgoing nuclei are created, along with the recoiled catalytic nucleus. They carry off the nuclear energy released, and heat the surrounding materials by multiple collisions. Importantly, they produce high energy γ radiation with negligible probability. So, this three-body idea solves the two major riddles of LENR, that nuclear reactions can occur at ordinary temperatures and without emitting γ radiation. Cross sections and rates are calculated using standard quantum mechanics, and accepted nuclear and solid-state physics. Their dependence on relevant densities, and on the reacting and catalytic nuclei, are explicit. The theoretical ideas and the results of their elaboration are compared with diverse data from LENR experiments with considerable success.


    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/348338445_Understanding_low_energy_nuclear_reactions

  • Apologies for posting this twice, but it seems worth adding to this thread too.

    Risk and Scientific Reputation: Lessons from Cold Fusion

    Huw Price

    Quote
    Many scientists have expressed concerns about potential catastrophic risks associated with new technologies. But expressing concern is one thing, identifying serious candidates another. Such risks are likely to be novel, rare, and difficult to study; data will be scarce, making speculation necessary. Scientists who raise such concerns may face disapproval not only as doomsayers, but also for their unconventional views. Yet the costs of false negatives in these cases -- of wrongly dismissing warnings about catastrophic risks -- are by definition very high. For these reasons, aspects of the methodology and culture of science, such as its attitude to epistemic risk and to unconventional views, are relevant to the challenges of managing extreme technological risks. In this piece I discuss these issues with reference to a real-world example that shares many of the same features, that of so-called 'cold fusion'.
  • https://d-nb.info/1068767162/34



    Nothing can be colder than absolute zero, as at zero Kelvin, the particles cease to move.
    This popular statement of thermodynamics is taught in high school and, in a classical
    picture, it is correct. In quantum mechanics, due to the zero point energy, the particles
    still show some motion even at absolute zero; the general statement that absolute zero is
    the coldest possible temperature, however, remains true. Yet, according to the definition
    of temperature, it is possible to create systems at negative absolute temperature. These
    are characterized by an inverted population distribution that is in thermal equilibrium and
    therefore stable. Due to the large occupation of high-energy states, however, a system at
    negative temperature is hotter than at any positive temperature; i.e. in thermal contact,
    heat would flow from the negative temperature to the positive temperature system.
    In everyday life, we do not encounter negative temperatures. Due to the exponentially
    increasing occupation distribution at negative temperatures, an upper bound on the energy of the particles is required to keep the distribution normalizable. In the case of free
    particles, however, kinetic energy with its parabolic dispersion is unbounded from above.
    Therefore free particles can never be at negative temperature. The key challenge to realize
    negative temperatures lies in the implementation of such an upper energy bound. Negative
    temperatures were realized experimentally for the first time in 1951 by E. M. Purcell and
    R. V. Pound [1]. In their experiment, Purcell and Pound created a population inversion
    of the two Zeeman states of the nuclear spins of 7Li in a homogeneous magnetic field.
    The inversion was in thermal equilibrium due to spin-spin relaxation processes and was
    found to be stable, limited only by the very slow spin-lattice relaxation. As the position
    of the nuclei was locked to the lattice sites in a crystal, kinetic energy of the ions was
    effectively excluded from the system. The resulting pure two-level system of the Zeeman
    states naturally provides an upper bound for the energy of the particles. The temperature that was realized in this experiment is therefore more precisely characterized by the
    term negative spin temperature

  • Surely negative temperature is purely a mathematical concept, like negative infinity and eternity in which space and time go backwards! We can only percieve positive numbers when we look at physics in the real rather than in the imaginary Universe - so we take it all in the present, second by second or year by year with no consistent plan for the future-because chaos (ie Mandelbrot Patterns) truly rules the Universe! It is just our own internal hubris which makes us physicists believe we are masters of the Universe (or Metaverse as facebook pundits are now suggesting). It only takes one itchy finger accidently or not to trigger all out thermo-nuclear war - sending the planet in one big bang back to the Stone-Age. This is Our Present Reality. :)