USEFUL PAPERS THREAD

  • Scalable and efficient separation of hydrogen isotopes using graphene-based

    electrochemical pumping

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/314080138_Scalable_and_efficient_separation_of_hydrogen_isotopes_using_graphene-based_electrochemical_pumping

    energy cost down $2GJ/kg D20

    "

    the described advantages of the graphene-based separation seem significant enough to justify rapid introduction of this disruptive technology even within the highly-conservative nuclear industry.

  • For general information the first Lenr people who involved Yeong E. Kim in his papers was our Italian fully decried here.

  • In the U. Utah archives, we found a partial translation of this document:


    https://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/PanethFthepublica.pdf#page=28


    It ends abruptly with: "Since the test tube containing the preparation did . . ."


    If someone could translate the rest from German, I would appreciate it. Just send me the text, and I will slide it into my Microsoft Word document. Here is what we have:



    THE TRANSFORMATION OF HYDROGEN INTO HELIUM


    Fritz Paneth, Kurt Peters and Paul Günther


    Chemistry Laboratory, Cornell University Ithaca New York


    and Chemistry Laboratory, Berlin University


    (Received February 9, 1927)


    A few months ago [1] we reported on experiments on the transformation of hydrogen into helium. While none of the methods of electrical discharge yielded any helium, small quantities of helium were produced when various palladium preparations were treated with hydrogen. Since none of the sources of error which we discussed seemed to provide an adequate explanation for the presence of this helium, we concluded that the helium must be assumed to be newly formed in this case.


    1. Berichte [Reports (of the German Chemical Society)] 59, 2039 (1926).


    We have now rechecked the sources of error, both in the Baker Laboratory at Cornell University and in the Chemistry Laboratory at Berlin University, and are convinced that we underestimated the potential influence of two of them.


    As mentioned in our article, one preparation in particular, a palladinized asbestos supplied by Kahlbaum, yielded especially high quantities compared to the other preparations when treated with hydrogen (p. 11^2). Asbestos, like all minerals, contains traces of helium, [3] and we therefore took the precaution of always first calcining the asbestos used in the preparation of our asbestos to such a degree that it was unable to give off any more helium at the much lower heating temperatures used in the experiments. In order to shed some light on the behavior of the [ahlbaum palladinized asbestos, we have now performed experiments with uncalcined asbestos, and have determined that, contrary to expectation, it yields up its helium content at much lower temperatures in hydrogen than in oxygen. We have no doubt, therefore, that the Kahlbaum palladinized asbestos, which always yielded helium when charged with hydrogen, but virtually no helium when charged with oxygen (pp. 11-12), released this helium from the asbestos. The relationship that we observed between the hydrogen activity of palladium and the occurrence of helium, which led us to assume that the source of the helium was in the palladium, was therefore an indirect one: only when the palladium was active and had absorbed hydrogen was the asbestos located in a hydrogen atmosphere during subsequent heating, and only then did it give off helium.


    3. We were unable to find any data on the helium content of asbestos in the literature; based on determinations we have made, it can contain 10^-4 ccm per g.




    If this explanation of the occurrence of helium is correct, then the experiment on which we had placed “special value” must be discounted, and all that is the experiments involving the preparations fabricated by us, which contained either no asbestos at all (palladium sponge, palladium black), or very intensely calcined, helium-free asbestos. This source of error cannot have come into play here; however, we believe that the effect of another source of error was underestimated.


    We had determined in experiments that not only is glass more permeable to helium than to neon under heat, but also that at ordinary temperatures it releases more helium than neon from a helium-neon mixture and gives off nearly pure helium when subsequently heated. The possibility had to be considered, therefore, that the glass test tube in which the palladium preparation was heated could be giving off perceptible amounts of helium as a result of its previous contact with air. We had ascertained that these amounts were below the limit of sensitivity of our method (p. 14), and our new experiments have confirmed this finding. However, this glass test tube was surrounded externally by a glass apparatus, specifically a glass cylinder encircled by a heating filament and placed in a vacuum jacket under water (pp. 13-14). A substantially larger amount of glass was being heated in this case, and there was consequently a possibility that demonstrable quantities of helium would be released, although this helium will at first be kept separate from the inner portion of the apparatus by the test tube containing the preparation. We arranged the apparatus so that the gases in the previously evacuated outer jacket of the oven would also be analyzed after heating, and in several experiments did in fact determine quantities of helium on the order of lQ-9 10-8 ccm. Since the test tube containing the preparation did

  • googledocs?

    translate the rest from German

    Since the preparation tube does not offer any effective protection against the penetration of helium into the inner part of the apparatus when it is hot, we believe that this source of error - the release of the helium dissolved in the glass within the vacuum jacket and the helium penetrating through the glass wall of the preparation tube into the analysis - apparatus - is responsible for the occurrence of 10 ~ ccm helium in many of our experiments3). However, we have also carried out several experiments in which the vacuum jacket of the furnace was in communication with the pump throughout the heating period, and it can hardly be assumed that the traces of helium which were released during this time, instead of entering the pump way through the slightly heated glass tube into the apparatus. Even today we cannot give any explanation for these remaining positive attempts4). But since the majority of our experiments have already been explained in a "natural" way, we consider it likely that the experiments still to come will also succeed, and we therefore want to state our view that, if any transformation of hydrogen in helium, the amount formed in the experiments with palladium and in the experiments with electrical discharges has not yet reached 10-~ ccm; and the apparatus is of the order of 10-9 ccm because of the neon dissolved in the glass helium is no longer reliable as long as the method calls for heating the glass. Let us try to decide by avoiding any heating whether there are any effects of the order of 10-9 cc.



    ") In which \V&e njr us the penetration of the heliuin think, will be seen more clearly from the drawings of the apparatus that will be published in the near future. 4) Various parties have spoken to us about the fact that charcoal cooled with liquid air can cause helium and neon to fractionate from air. More recent experiments have confirmed the view (p. 2040) that this cannot be the case at such low pressures. Palladium, too, does not have the ability to have a fractionating effect on helium and seon (S 2045), as has recently been established.

  • Shwartz et Rodriguez..4Kv spark gap 2021

    "

    The glass reactor chamber
    was filled with an argon atmosphere, with deuterium oxide evaporated into it from an
    internal reservoir to saturation vapor pressure (≈7%). When the electric spark was
    activated, copious amounts of X-rays were detected, and they were recorded using digital
    X-ray film common to dentistry. The electric spark was only capable of sparking across a
    4 mm gap (or shorter) in ordinary atmosphere, which indicates energy at ≈4 kV.
    A minimum of 10 kV is needed to produce the weakest of X-rays. This potential 4 kV
    voltage is reduced further in more conductive argon gas (V = IR, where V is argon gas,
    I is deuterium water, and R is vapor in the reactor air), making it highly unlikely for the
    electric spark to be the source of the X-rays. This phenomenon was also supported by the
    argon gas-only experiment, producing no X-rays

    "

    (Figure 5). These X-ray results tend to confirm an Ohsawa-Kushi fusion transmutation
    hypothesis and suggest that a previously unknown nuclear fusion process based on
    oxygen and a metal is occurring.

    In this case, because deuterium is in the alkali metal family, it is considered a metal.

    Hydrogen does act as a metal under high pressure or in degenerate matter.

    Hence, this is considered a MOXY process. Additional confirmation
    of these MOXY experiments awaits further metrics.

    Spectroscopic measurements of
    18O concentrations within the reactor, in comparison to the heavy water source, need to
    be conducted.

    https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Gary-Rodriguez/publication/349424967_Metal-oxygen_Fusion_Experimental_Confirmation_of_an_Ohsawa-Kushi_Transmutation_and_an_Exploration_of_Low-energy_Nuclear_Reactions/links/602fe2cb299bf1cc26d7b678/Metal-oxygen-Fusion-Experimental-Confirmation-of-an-Ohsawa-Kushi-Transmutation-and-an-Exploration-of-Low-energy-Nuclear-Reactions.pdf?_sg%5B0%5D=D48ZgTWThhQVJ143KhnjkzZ8rMiexTja_AS6oKq8UBU2yzreQqTw1TPTczb8uIu1nbVho3Sp0wEc-zf2mZs2pA.IKSIx0Uq9-HNPTeWGRVdw4uP2T7hI5MNNDhNvWGR8uZPjQTh1iT4huzWzfmMOUzIoXp74RgHaRz6Q-Z2mfqmIg&_sg%5B1%5D=TwbINQAiO73YjW6z9oHZM57QjSyAiVGQkODtclbSSJvLG8hLo4s9jxMjPkD_jzsE5PSiVq5gsP-MKs_ZD4tbkbstZnFJ-eRq1vJA8m58Tfj3.IKSIx0Uq9-HNPTeWGRVdw4uP2T7hI5MNNDhNvWGR8uZPjQTh1iT4huzWzfmMOUzIoXp74RgHaRz6Q-Z2mfqmIg&_iepl=

  • Please keep discussion to a minimum - this is a virtual library -so no talking!


    On a related matter, JSTOR - the journal repository - has -because of pandemic issues and homeworking they say - opened up it's free membership rules and access to contents to independent researchers. Possibly very useful.


    Need Help Logging in to JSTOR?
    Before getting started: How you log in depends on what kind of researcher you are, and it could also possibly depend on the location from which you are…
    support.jstor.org

  • Despite being 10 years old, this is a very excellent overview of the field, a terrific piece of work by all concerned. Particularly the table at the very end showing who got what results and how.



    LOW ENERGY NUCLEAR REACTIONS:
    TRANSMUTATIONS
    by
    Mahadeva Srinivasan George Miley and Edmund Storms
    Preprint of review article distributed to participants of ICCF 16 Conference held in Chennai during Feb 2011


    https://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/Srinivasanlowenergyn.pdf

  • Unperceived irony ...


    1) Selecting any heavy metal whose atomic and metallic

    properties are closer to gold. It can be called as Base metal

    of gold (BMG).

    2) Expected heavy and cheap BMGs are: Tungsten-74 having

    stable mass numbers (180 to 186), Rhenium-75 having mass

    numbers (185,187) and Osmium-76 having mass numbers

    (187 to 194). See Table 1 for the density, melting point and

    cost of BMGs.

    3) Filling the cold nuclear heating chamber (CNHC) with preweighed

    BMG powder.

    4) Suitable catalyst can also be added to CNHC for a better

    reaction.

    5) Evacuating the CNHC and filling with Hydrogen gas at moderate

    pressure.

    6) Heating the CNHC at moderate temperature and melting the

    BMG powder.

    7) Further heating may help in 100% fusion of hot Hydrogen gas

    with liquid BMG.

    Cooling the CNHC to room temperature.

    9) Measuring the quantity of exhausted gases while opening

    the CNHC.

    10) Analyzing the nature of exhausted gases while opening the

    CNHC.

    11) Analyzing and identifying the CNHC metal sample in all possible

    ways with all available methods.

    12) Tabulating the % of BMG hydrides, % of BMG isotopes and %

    of gold.

    13) Repeating the experiment and optimizing and sustaining the

    production of % of gold.

    14) Understanding the pros and cons of the experimental set up

    and improving it.

    15) Selecting and finalizing the best BMG and standardizing the

    experimental set up and procedure with reference to cost

    and isotopic abundance of Tungsten, Rhenium and Osmium.

    16) If successful, Iridium, Platinum and Gold can be produced in

    a systematic approach.


    We present our views in the following way.

    1) As the CNHC is completely free from Oxygen and other

    gases, during heating of CNHC, hot hydrogen gas tries to

    attack the semi solid BMG to form the respective hydrides.

    2) At the time of melting of BMG, super heated hydrogen gas

    tries to fuse with liquid BMG with ease.

    3) It may be noted that, during cosmic evolution, in a cosmological

    approach, first hydrogen was formed at a temperature

    of around 3500 K [13,14]. It means, hydrogen atom

    starts dissociating into free proton and free electron above

    3500 K.

    4) Following the concept of cosmological generation of first

    Hydrogen atoms, as melting point of BMG approaches

    3000 deg C, there is a possibility of hydrogen gas (H2) to split

    into hydrogen atoms (H), hydro-protons and hydro-electrons.

    5) As the CNHC is completely closed, further heating of liquid

    and semi gaseous form of BMG and hydrogen atoms (H)

    and hydro-protons and hydro-electrons, there is 100% scope

    for fusion of BMG atoms and hydrogen atoms via nuclear

    fusion.

    6) As BMG mass is roughly 180 to 190 times higher than hydrogen,

    due to strong attractive nature, energetic hydrogen

    atoms are forced to fuse with BMG atomic nuclides.

    7) By means of currently believed nuclear strong interaction,

    there exit two possibilities. First possibility is BMG nuclide

    absorbs Hydrogen atom in the form of Neutron. Second possibility

    is BMG nuclide absorbs Hydro-proton and retains the

    hydro-electron in its atomic orbit.

    First possibility can be considered as an increase in mass

    number of BMG.

    9) Second possibility can be considered as an increase in BMG

    proton number.

    10) Repeated cycles of increase in BMG proton number helps in

    generating Iridium, Platinum and Gold atoms with unstable

    mass numbers.

    11) Further repeated cycles of increase in mass number of unstable

    Iridium, Platinum and Gold helps in generating stable

    atomic nuclides.

    12) After certain time, heating can be stopped and CNHC can be

    allowed to cool.

    13) CNHC output material can be examined for stable and unstable

    Iridium, Platinum and Gold atoms in different

    proportions.

    14) Finally, to the possible extent, stable Iridium, Platinum and

    Gold atoms can be produced in significant quantities.


    ................................................................................................................


    4) Here it seems reasonable to recall the ancient Indian

    methods of producing Gold with Mercury [17,18]. Mercury

    is the only metal that exists in liquid form having

    a density of 13.5 g/cc.It is having 7 isotopes in the range

    of 194 to 203. As Mercury is in liquid state, under certain

    pressure conditions and by considering the proposed

    cold nuclear fusion method of energetic hydro-protons

    and hydro-electrons and weak interaction scheme, it

    seems possible to convert Mercury into Gold. We are

    working in this direction also.




    Compare with Roberto A. Monti mercury and vinegar method


    http://www.lowenergytransmutations.org/documents/metallic_transmutations_by_acetic_acid_primo_dina_.pdf

    https://ia902902.us.archive.org/14/items/howtomercruytogold/How%20to%20Mercruy%20to%20Gold.pdf


    and Fabio Cardone sonicated mercury


    https://sci-hub.se/10.1142/S0217979217501685

  • 1) Selecting any heavy metal whose atomic and metallic

    properties are closer to gold. It can be called as Base metal

    of gold (BMG).

    People never can stop unfounded dreams... You cannot directly convert Hg-->Ag by LENR. The only path is upwards from Osmium. But there are complex cluster reactions where a set of nuclei does decay into more stable nuclei. See also the Proton 29 experiments.

    So if you get 1g gold of 1000kg Hg your investment is live time your return a big mess....

  • Here it seems reasonable to recall the ancient Indian

    methods of producing Gold with Mercury

    producing gold "with mercury" does not mean producing gold "from mercury"

    if it did mean that, India would been have incredibly rich and powerful

    ,the poor British woud not have had a Raj

    First possibility is BMG nuclide

    absorbs Hydrogen atom in the form of Neutron. Second possibility

    is BMG nuclide absorbs Hydro-proton and retains the

    hydro-electron in its atomic orbit.

    3000C + tungsten plus hydrogen,=GOLD,,,extreme wealth is just ONE experiment away :)

    ITER just needs to keep its wall temperature a mere 400C below its MP?

    maybe a better thread is Caveat Emptor?

  • Rock cathodes for hydrogen..

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305687100_Pentlandite_rocks_as_sustainable_and_stable_efficient_electrocatalysts_for_hydrogen_generation


    The need for sustainable catalysts for an efficient hydrogen evolution reaction is of significant interest for modern society. Inspired by comparable structural properties of [FeNi]-hydrogenase, here we present the natural ore pentlandite (Fe4.5Ni4.5S8) as a direct ‘rock’ electrode material for hydrogen evolution under acidic conditions with an overpotential of 280 mV at 10 mA cm−2. Furthermore, it reaches a value as low as 190 mV after 96 h of electrolysis due to surface sulfur depletion, which may change the electronic structure of the catalytically active nickel–iron centres. The ‘rock’ material shows an unexpected catalytic activity with comparable overpotential and Tafel slope to some well-developed metallic or nanostructured catalysts. Notably, the ‘rock’ material offers high current densities (≤650 mA cm−2) without any loss in activity for approximately 170 h. The superior hydrogen evolution performance of pentlandites as ‘rock’ electrode labels this ore as a promising electrocatalyst for future hydrogen-based economy.