Ed Storms Pre-print on Cold Fusion, Materials and Gaps. Comments Please!

  • Found a specific paper that talks about sub 10 nm pores done with an Helium FIB. So, it seems that Storms requirement for gap size is achievable.


    https://pubs.rsc.org/en/conten…anding/2018/nr/c7nr08406d


    Looking at the feasibility of creating a thin film of Pd with sub 10 nm pores, I wonder if a thin film disk of 20 mm diameter and 0,1 millimeter thickness as used by Liu et al as reported in this paper:


    https://www.newenergytimes.com/v2/library/2006/2006LiuB-ExessHeat.pdf


    could be used to repeat the experiment with the nano machined sub 10 nm pores produced in the Pd. These experiments were done with solid Pd disks and still were successfull and showed energy densities that were indicative of nuclear power, and probably lend themselves to be performed within the constraints of Seebeck calorimetry, specially the version of this that is done with Deuterium on one side of the Pd thin film and vacuum on the other side, which stimulates the flux through the thin film, as reported here:



    https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/document?repid=rep1&type=pdf&doi=b84786e335626b42566c1d3114a9d6dfbb7a9318


    Don't know if anyone agrees this would be a straight forward experiment to test the nanomachined gaps, or not.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • Don't know if anyone agrees this would be a straight forward experiment to test the nanomachined gaps, or not.

    The question is, if the nano manufacturing process is efficient enough to create billions of well defined nano holes/cavities

    in a realistic time frame.

  • The question is, if the nano manufacturing process is efficient enough to create billions of well defined nano holes/cavities

    in a realistic time frame.

    This paper https://pubs.rsc.org/en/conten…anding/2018/nr/c7nr08406d


    talks about preparing surfaces of square inches of surface, so I think it is possible.

    I quote:

    The automation in the stage motion and milling time opens a door for the rapid mass production of nanopore chips over a wafer size of several inches.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • High quality micro and nano drilling - FEMTO Engineering
    Drilling holes with high quality in different materials is readily achievable using utra-short pluses laser. Holes from several microns to several millimeters…
    www.femto-engineering.fr

    This paper https://pubs.rsc.org/en/conten…anding/2018/nr/c7nr08406d


    talks about preparing surfaces of square inches of surface, so I think it is possible.

    I quote:

    The automation in the stage motion and milling time opens a door for the rapid mass production of nanopore chips over a wafer size of several inches.

  • we have been in contact with this company and they did a great job according to our requirements.


    https://www.profactor.at/en/re…-nanoimprint-lithography/


    If you come to terms on how to proceed, we could help to establish contact.

    Thanks gerold.s !!! Well, the basic idea is to produce samples of Pd and/or Ni with gaps between 2 nm and 10 nm. The exact shape of the holes, the shape and thickness of the sample, will have to be determined by the machining capabilities itself. We need Storms to shape those variables in order to proceed further, if at all.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • we have been in contact with this company and they did a great job according to our requirements.

    A few years back you were working on something LENR with your students. Are you still working on that, and if so could you give an update?

  • A few years back you were working on something LENR with your students. Are you still working on that, and if so could you give an update?

    Yes, still working on some stainless steel components for vacuum system, but no direct involvement in experiments.

  • Cydonia , Femto Engineering answered me, they are unable to process holes in the range of 2 to 10 nanometers. Bummer.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • Nano analysis of Pd catalytic activity..

    not LENR.. but may give some clues.

    "

    The materials, prepared by impregnation and by sputtering, presented

    uniform well-dispersed Pd nanoparticles. In addition, single atoms

    and small clusters of Pd were only detected in the materials prepared

    by impregnation. Upon exposure to hydrogen, the Pd nanoparticles

    smaller than 2 nm and the single atoms did not present any change,

    while the larger ones presented a core−shell morphology, where the

    core was Pd and the shell was PdHx.

    The results suggest that the

    long-term activity of the materials prepared by impregnation can be attributed solely to the presence of small clusters and single atoms of Pd.

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/363924063_Insights_into_Palladium_Deactivation_during_Advanced_Oxidation_Processes

  • the larger ones presented a core−shell morphology, where the

    core was Pd and the shell was PdHx.

    Interesting, this would mean that such a material would not have any gap to create the NAE that leads to the NAS.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • A pre-print of A New Understanding of Cold Fusion is available at https://www.researchgate.net/p…erstanding_of_Cold_Fusion,


    It begins by stating his assumptions, and then proceeds logically to explain observed behavior. Electron screening is given importance. Later, from section 4.2.2:


    For fusion to occur, the hydrogen nuclei in the NAS must achieve a separation small enough to allow their nuclear energy states to interact. People have focused on the behavior of hot fusion as a path to explain cold fusion. This is a false path for the following reasons.


    In the case of hot fusion, the Coulomb barrier is overcome by the kinetic energy of the nuclei, usually in plasma. When the hot fusion reaction is instead caused to take place in a material by bombarding the material with ions having kinetic energy, the electrons present in the material can add to the very small rate of the hot fusion reaction, especially at low kinetic energy, as shown in Fig. 18.[58, 59] In this case, the electrons near the site of the random encounter can slightly reduce the magnitude of the barrier. Consequently, their effect is large but not enough to fully compensate for the loss of reaction rate caused by the reduction in kinetic energy. At best, this behavior shows that electron screening of the hot fusion mechanism is possible in a chemical structure.

    This kind of screening does not apply to the cold fusion process during which the applied kinetic energy is essentially zero and the resulting helium nucleus does not fragment. If it did, all materials should be able to cause cold fusion.


    In the case of cold fusion, the electrons must first concentrate near the hydrogen nuclei in sufficient numbers and in a structure that can reduce the Coulomb field enough for the nuclei to share their nuclear energy states. Now we have a problem because electrons are not known to concentrate this way. When electrons concentrate to form chemical compounds or crystals, the electron structure keeps the nuclei far apart. For LENR to occur, the electrons need to force the nuclei closer together. This requires a new kind of electron interaction. This realization is one of the important consequences resulting from this discovery.


    Cutting to the conclusion:


    6.0 SUMMARY

    Normally, the chemical energy states do not interact DIRECTLY with the nuclear

    energy states. This means that a condition not present in a normal chemical structure has

    to be created somewhere in the chemical structure before fusion can occur. This unique

    structure is proposed to form only in physical gaps having a critical size in the nanometer

    range as the result of many different treatments and in many different kinds of materials.

    This structure is proposed to consist of two or more hydrogen nuclei and many electrons.

    The creation process is consistent with the rules that apply to chemical processes because,

    initially, the process does not anticipate nuclear interaction.

    To cause fusion, this structure must allow at least two D to get close enough for

    their nuclear energy states to interact. The electrons that cause this reduction in separation

    would interact with the nuclear energy states. As a result, as fusion happens, some of

    these electrons would have access to the mass-energy and be able to dissipate this energy

    as kinetic energy and momentum. Briefly stated the electron structure that allows fusion

    to happen provides the means for the nuclear energy to be dissipated while momentum is

    conserved. Whether this emission of electrons is a sustained or sudden process has yet to

    be determined.


    This kind of electron structure might form in many materials but be ignored

    because nothing unusual happens. The sites would be made visible only when an isotope

    of hydrogen is made available and the resulting nuclear power is great enough to be

    detected. In other words, this process might have always occurred at a rate too low for it

    to be detected until F-P made such a search important. A description based on a similar

    assembly of atoms and electrons has been suggested by Goncharov and Kirkinskii[75]

    The nuclear process is proposed to convert one hydrogen isotope to another. The

    initial formation of 4H from D-e-D fusion produces 4He by rapid beta decay. Tritium

    formed from D-e-H fusion produces 3He by slow beta decay. A few neutrons are made

    when the tritium fuses with 2H. The same mechanism applies equally to all isotopes of

    hydrogen with only the nuclear product being affected by the isotope being caused to

    fuse.


    Fusion of deuterium nuclei would create 23.8 Mev/event. The release of this

    energy would send all of the components, including the electrons, in different directions.

    This process allows the momentum resulting in the energy release to be conserved. So,

    instead of the energy being released from the nuclear product, as is the case when hot

    fusion occurs, the energy and momentum are released from the entire assembly of

    components that are involved in lowering the Coulomb barrier. This process represents a

    new kind of nuclear interaction that can only take place within a chemical environment.

    While this idea may be considered implausible, the explanation is consistent with many

    observations. In addition, the predicted behavior can be used to test the consistency of

    the model.


    Cold fusion is not just a clean source of energy. It also reveals the existence of a

    new kind of atom-electron interaction on par with the interaction that causes crystals to

    form. However, this structure can cause a nuclear reaction when hydrogen isotopes are

    present. Consequently, this event makes the structure visible enough for people to take

    notice. The implications of such a structure being possible are huge. This is on par with

    the discovery of radioactivity in 1896. This discovery required all the understanding of

    nuclear behavior accepted at that time to be rewritten. We are now at a similar time of

    transition in scientific understanding.


    What is stopping this potential source of clean energy from being used on a large

    scale? After all, a huge and expensive structure is not required, unlike hot fusion.

    Instead, LENR needs only a special condition located within an ordinary material, such

    as palladium or several other materials, to be properly stimulated. The required

    conditions might also be made in large amounts with reproducible behavior using nano-

    machining. The discovery of how to make LENR useful has been slow only because the

    effort has been trivial compared to the difficulty. Nevertheless, this problem is being

    slowly solved. Hopefully, this paper will accelerate the effort.

  • In the case of cold fusion, the electrons must first concentrate near the hydrogen nuclei in sufficient numbers and in a structure that can reduce the Coulomb field enough for the nuclei to share their nuclear energy states. Now we have a problem because electrons are not known to concentrate this way. When electrons concentrate to form chemical compounds or crystals, the electron structure keeps the nuclei far apart. For LENR to occur, the electrons need to force the nuclei closer together. This requires a new kind of electron interaction. This realization is one of the important consequences resulting from this discovery.

    I think I already mentioned this, but this "new kind of electron interaction" is most likely what the late Kenneth Shoulders termed "EV" and also the late Takaaki Matsumoto acknowledged to be what he was observing and that he likened to the ball lightning phenomena and called Micro Ball Lightning, and proposed the term electro nuclear collapse to explain the observed phenomena.


    I know this is highly controversial, but there is evidence that this interaction can happen without the need for a gap in a metal lattice, as an equivalent phenomena has been observed in hydrodynamic systems (ultrasound or mechanical driven cavitation systems in aqueous systems) and also in magnetohydrodynamic systems where self organizing plasmas can be formed. The gaps in metal are probably a favorable condition to form this electro estructure capable of rearranging matter to produce heat, as the phenomena outside metals tends to be much more prone to transmutation than heat.

    I certainly Hope to see LENR helping humans to blossom, and I'm here to help it happen.

  • I know this is highly controversial, but there is evidence that this interaction can happen without the need for a gap in a metal lattice, as an equivalent phenomena has been observed in hydrodynamic systems (ultrasound or mechanical driven cavitation systems in aqueous systems) and also in magnetohydrodynamic systems where self organizing plasmas can be formed. The gaps in metal are probably a favorable condition to form this electro estructure capable of rearranging matter to produce heat, as the phenomena outside metals tends to be much more prone to transmutation than heat.

    For a long time it has been accepted by experimenters that high-purity palladium is not the best material to use as a cathode in electrolytic systems, And it is quite obvious from the way Pd was re-smelted at what was then called J.M.Metals in Harlow Essex UK, that batches of 'pure' Pd were more variable than was at the time realised by experimenters. JM used what were basically craft-based methods, and the main method of deciding what (jewellery mounts, medals, even coins) went into the crucible as feedstock was the Mk1 eyeball of the supervisor. There was no XRF on hand and JM's principal analytical lab was elsewhere.


    The presence of defects, cracks and gaps, artificially induced in a metal lattice seems to be a pre-requisite for cold fusion, because of the way Fermi electrons gather there. This is also what happens (we think) in the LEC - though fusion in the working electrodes is very rare. It is my belief that the LEC is a plain vanilla low-level LENR system, which manifests as an enhanced Contact Potential device producing electricity.

  • Your last postulates seem as a copernician revolution... For the chemist you are.

    For a long time it has been accepted by experimenters that high-purity palladium is not the best material to use as a cathode in electrolytic systems, And it is quite obvious from the way Pd was re-smelted at what was then called J.M.Metals in Harlow Essex UK, that batches of 'pure' Pd were more variable than was at the time realised by experimenters. JM used what were basically craft-based methods, and the main method of deciding what (jewellery mounts, medals, even coins) went into the crucible as feedstock was the Mk1 eyeball of the supervisor. There was no XRF on hand and JM's principal analytical lab was elsewhere.


    The presence of defects, cracks and gaps, artificially induced in a metal lattice seems to be a pre-requisite for cold fusion, because of the way Fermi electrons gather there. This is also what happens (we think) in the LEC - though fusion in the working electrodes is very rare. It is my belief that the LEC is a plain vanilla low-level LENR system, which manifests as an enhanced Contact Potential device producing electricity.

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