The Exotic Vacuum Object (EVO) as the cause of the vacuum reaction.

  • A mega watt for a pico second is nothing but if it hits your eyes...

    When Rossi first referred to the visual output of his SK reactor, he required the use shade 14 welding glasses.


    Here is rossi's dialog


    2018-07-03 11:23 W.

    Dear Dr Rossi,

    I have received your invitation to attend the presentation of the industrialized Ecat SX and again I want to thank you.

    Just a suggestion: I suppose that to look at the SK could damage the eyes: will be enough to wear sunglasses?


    2018-07-03 12:21 Andrea Rossi

    W.:

    No, sunglasses do not protect even a bit.

    The light irradiated is very strong. We will supply to the attendants masks with protection 14. To look at the light of the Ecat SK without this protection is very dangerous for the eyes, even for several seconds.

    Warm Regards,

    A.R.



    Another reference as follows:


    2018-05-27 22:14 Andrea Rossi

    Clark:

    we had to protect ourselves behind a grade 14 glass because looking at the light radiated by the SK could damage seriously the eyes. Few seconds after the turn on of the reactor the heat radiated from the Ecat SK broke the 14 protection glass. We had supplementary 14 protection masks. Nonetheless, I saw from that minuscule reactor exit a tremendously dazzling white light all around the laboratory and I will never forget this impression. The SK was born. I think we will make it useful. Many errors emerged, but now we work to correct them, the most difficult part has been resolved.

    Warm Regards,

    A.R.

  • One reason I'm interested in the EUV spectrum is because I believe it's beyond what's needed to ionize many gases. This could be important, because one key food source of all these self organized systems is electrons. I'm imagining a scenario in which the plasma ball is created, the EUV produced ionizes additional atoms, some of the electrons are pulled back into the plasma ball, more EUV is produced, and the cycle repeats.

  • One reason I'm interested in the EUV spectrum is because I believe it's beyond what's needed to ionize many gases. This could be important, because one key food source of all these self organized systems is electrons. I'm imagining a scenario in which the plasma ball is created, the EUV produced ionizes additional atoms, some of the electrons are pulled back into the plasma ball, more EUV is produced, and the cycle repeats.

    Direct photolysis of H2O to H and O is optimized with a photon radiation wavelengths of 180 nm or shorter (vacuum-ultraviolet light), with a minimum photon energy of 6.9 eV. But, it has been shown that overall water splitting at an external quantum efficiency of up to 96 per cent at wavelengths between 350 and 360 nanometres, which is equivalent to an internal quantum efficiency of almost unity, using a modified aluminium-doped strontium titanate (SrTiO3:Al) photocatalyst


    A large LENR plasma photonic generation system like the SunCell might change their generation strategy to hydrogen production. With potonic output in the megawatt range, that system could produce a ton of hydrogen and oxygen instead of low grade heat.


    The H and O could then use a fuel cell to generate electricity from the H and O.


    https://www.mdpi.com/2079-4991/10/12/2572/pdf

    Photocatalytic Overall Water Splitting by SrTiO3 with Surface Oxygen Vacancies


    By selectively photodepositing the cocatalysts Rh/Cr2O3 and CoOOH for the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions, respectively, on different crystal facets of the semiconductor particles using anisotropic charge transport, the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions could be promoted separately. This enabled multiple consecutive forward charge transfers without backward charge transfer, reaching the upper limit of quantum efficiency for overall water splitting. On going research demonstrates the feasibility of overall water splitting free from charge recombination losses and introduces an ideal cocatalyst/photocatalyst structure for efficient water splitting.


    External Content www.youtube.com
    Content embedded from external sources will not be displayed without your consent.
    Through the activation of external content, you agree that personal data may be transferred to third party platforms. We have provided more information on this in our privacy policy.

  • One reason I'm interested in the EUV spectrum is because I believe it's beyond what's needed to ionize many gases. This could be important, because one key food source of all these self organized systems is electrons. I'm imagining a scenario in which the plasma ball is created, the EUV produced ionizes additional atoms, some of the electrons are pulled back into the plasma ball, more EUV is produced, and the cycle repeats.

    The cycle is how the EVO grows larger in a pumped EVO system like SAFIRE. But this cycle is not open ended due to the instability of the reaction. The reaction will terminate with a bosenova. This condition of instability has been called a meltdown. This happens in the SAFIRE system when that system is pushed to its top end performance point.


    In a self fed system that forms around a hole superconductor, the bosenova occurs when the EVO grows to about 200 microns in diameter.

  • I'm interested in both the bosenova and the steady state emission of energy (from the vacuum or elsewhere) while the self organized EVO is in an excited state. The excess energy seems to show up (at least in SAFIRE's reactor) when the multiple double layers collapse down closer towards the anode, making it shine brilliantly. This is the state that seems to produce steady excess output. Kiril in his talks and interviews makes it clear that in his system it's when the plasma ball starts to shine brilliantly (when he increases the current) that the excess energy shows up. He also mentions how the system can produce powerful back spikes that can damage transformers.

  • I'm interested in both the bosenova and the steady state emission of energy (from the vacuum or elsewhere) while the self organized EVO is in an excited state. The excess energy seems to show up (at least in SAFIRE's reactor) when the multiple double layers collapse down closer towards the anode, making it shine brilliantly. This is the state that seems to produce steady excess output. Kiril in his talks and interviews makes it clear that in his system it's when the plasma ball starts to shine brilliantly (when he increases the current) that the excess energy shows up. He also mentions how the system can produce powerful back spikes that can damage transformers.

    This video shows a meltdown of the SAFIRE system.


    External Content youtu.be
    Content embedded from external sources will not be displayed without your consent.
    Through the activation of external content, you agree that personal data may be transferred to third party platforms. We have provided more information on this in our privacy policy.


    The SAFIRE system is a pumped Bose condensate. This system is hard to control because it will become self pumping. This meltdown issue has been seen throughout the development history of LENR development. To my knowledge, nobody has figured out how to control the auto pumping mechanism.


    In a nuclear reactor, control rods control neutron pumping by absorbing neutrons. This control mechanism is what SAFIRE is looking for to control meltdown. At 7:00 in to the video, it show that 7% power input produces 100% power output. That is uncontrolled performance.


    The other pumping mechanism is the bosenova mechanism where there is a short burst of of both input and output power where the condensate is created, grows rapidly for a very short time then becomes unstable and dies in a bosenova where energy is released. This EVO lifecycle is produce by an alternating pumping process that lasts for a very short time using alternating input power application.


    The Bosenova produces relativistic electron and EUV photons. IMHO, this bosenova mechanism is how Rossi can produce a steady state output without meltdown. Rossi uses a xenon blacket in his plasma to convert these electrons and photons into white light that he then converts into electric current through the photoelectric effect. This process produces almost no heat.


    The EVO is created in the center of the plasma and is not given enough time to move very far from the center of the plasma before it becomes unstable. This is how transmutation is controlled. Only the elements inside the plasma are affected by the EVO. The structure of the reactor is never exposed to the action of the EVOs.


    In the VEGA experiment, we see EVOs exploding at a relatively constant rate.

    See this post for the VEGA experiment video:


    IMHO, the SAFIRE developers are taking the hard road to reactor control. They should use the VEGA control mechanism.

  • Axil,


    May I ask that in your definition, is a Bosenova and instant process or one that can transpire over an extended period of time (if precisely controlled). I ask this because multiple parties including BLP, SAFIRE, and Chukanov have all reported continual EUV production over extended time frames when at high power. If the Bosenova is not an instant event, then maybe it should be broken down into stages -- formation, continuation, destruction.

  • Axil,


    May I ask that in your definition, is a Bosenova and instant process or one that can transpire over an extended period of time (if precisely controlled). I ask this because multiple parties including BLP, SAFIRE, and Chukanov have all reported continual EUV production over extended time frames when at high power. If the Bosenova is not an instant event, then maybe it should be broken down into stages -- formation, continuation, destruction.

    Bosenova - Wikipedia


    The bosenova is a phenomena that is being studied in Cold Bose condensates of atoms.


    You can find more about bosenova from the preprint server. There are a number of references connect to Bose condensates there.


    Search | arXiv e-print repository


    BrLP melts down. That is why they when with liquid electrodes because the solid 100 kilo tungsten electrodes and moly shields disappeared. Also SAFIRE melts down as seen in the video above.


    https://images.app.goo.gl/oYmSceSRfgeymNWr8


    My guess is that Chukanov is using bosenova pumping because his input power pumping is microwaves, the same as Rossi (actually RF).

  • External Content www.youtube.com
    Content embedded from external sources will not be displayed without your consent.
    Through the activation of external content, you agree that personal data may be transferred to third party platforms. We have provided more information on this in our privacy policy.

    It is instructive to look at how Rossi pumps his plasma in the QuarkX reactor. The pumping cycle that Rossi demoed for the QuarkX was 8.3 seconds long. The cycle begins with the application of a high Dv/Dt spark as seen both on the scope and at the rear of the QX reactor in the video. Next there is an application of RF pumping for about 4 seconds. Then there is a 4.3 second period of dead time where pumping stops.


    The 4 seconds dead time serves to reduce the power production of the cycle were the reactor cools down. Rossi was running the QX reactor at only 20% power which is the reason for the 4 second dead time in the QX cycle.


    At full power, that dead time period in the cycle would be filled with RF pumping during the total duration of the cycle.


    The sharp DV/DT voltage peaks are the arcs that form the EVOs at the start of every cycle. I speculate that the High Dv/Dt spark will kill any active EVOs and activate new nascent EVOs for the upcoming cycle. These cycle initiating sparks will also destroy the EVOs at the end of the previous cycle and release any energy stored contained in the EVOs.


    In the scope, you will also see sharp vertical high voltage pulses that occur randomly during the 4 second pumping phase of the cycle. These are bosenova that mark the death of the EVOs formed by the initiation of the high Dv/Dt spark.

  • Actually, Kiril Chukanov has stated that when using RF only small scale ball lightnings were stable so he switched to microwaves at over 2Ghz and he has no problem stabilizing them.

  • Actually, Kiril Chukanov has stated that when using RF only small scale ball lightnings were stable so he switched to microwaves at over 2Ghz and he has no problem stabilizing them.

    There is almost no difference between how Rossi controls the plasma and how Kiril Chukanov controls the plasma. As you state, Chukanov used RF on a small scale ball lightnings system. Ross has the SK plasma thermal reactor which is almost identical to what Chukanov has developed.

  • You are talking about direct H2O dissociation by VUV, however what is about direct heating of N2 or O2?

    Apparently the air (N2 & O2) isn't heated by IRs directly only by UV.

    What kind of efficiency it should have, because the QX spectrum won't be exactly superposed to the O2 or N2 spectrum ?

  • You are talking about direct H2O dissociation by VUV, however what is about direct heating of N2 or O2?

    Apparently the air (N2 & O2) isn't heated by IRs directly only by UV.

    What kind of efficiency it should have, because the QX spectrum won't be exactly superposed to the O2 or N2 spectrum ?

    In optical electrolysis there is no exposure to the water/micro particle mix or the electrolyzed gas to air. Such a system should be completely airtight. In the system that I purposed, the EUV is produced by the LENR reactor not the sun.

  • Please try to answer exactly to my question for MY expectations, to better know that ( no trap question)

    In optical electrolysis there is no exposure to the water/micro particle mix or the electrolyzed gas to air. Such a system should be completely airtight. In the system that I purposed, the EUV is produced by the LENR reactor not the sun.

  • You are talking about direct H2O dissociation by VUV?

    I am talking about direct H2O dissociation by UVA.

    however what is about direct heating of N2 or O2?

    direct heating of N2 or O2 does not occur.


    Apparently the air (N2 & O2) isn't heated by IRs directly only by UV.

    The EUV produced by the plasma is converted to UVA by a phosphor. The UVA passes through glass into an enclosed water container and is not exposed to air.


    What kind of efficiency it should have, because the QX spectrum won't be exactly superposed to the O2 or N2 spectrum ?


    I don't know what "the QX spectrum won't be exactly superposed to the O2 or N2 spectrum" means! There is no O2 or N2 spectrum involved. The only spectrum involved is 350 to 360nm UVA light that is produced by the LENR plasma reactor when EVU light passes through the glass covered with phosphor.

    The microparticle electrolyte used in the phosphor covered glass completely enclosed water container that does the electrolysis using UVA light produced by the reactor has an efficiency of 96%.

  • Well, let's leave the Rossi world, catalysis, QX..etc..

    Probably, I asked my question incorrectly :S

    So could an VUV spectrum directly heat air ?

    According to the literature yes, N2 and O2 cannot be heated by IRs but effectively yes by UV (the upper atmosphere for example).

    However, I imagine that air spectra should be perfectly tuned to the UV light spectrum that heats it.

    What performance could we expect from this and how could we improve it ?

    As you seem better than me in optic field, this is why I ask you the question :thumbup:

  • Why heat air directly when we can make hydrogen and oxygen and burn it for heat at 2400C. We can also produce electricity with it at 85% efficiency using a fuel cell.

  • You see dear friend, on the physical side you know how to be very original but on the engineering side, you are basic.

    You can't be good at everything, you talk to me about grandfather stuff that you see everywhere in popular magazine.


    Why heat air directly when we can make hydrogen and oxygen and burn it for heat at 2400C. We can also produce electricity with it at 85% efficiency using a fuel cell.

  • I did some additional research into EUV light.


    It is absorbed by pretty much all matter, except certain layered materials which may be called meta-materials. Even these layered materials used in EUV lithographic systems are poor reflectors. Also, lithographic EUV must be done in a vacuum to prevent the EUV from heating or ionizing that atmosphere.


    In simplest terms, the EUV spectrum is very energetic, can ionize almost any gas, and can heat both atmosphere and solid materials. In the SAFIRE reactor, Monty has mentioned how there is an instant thermal response because the EUV hits the walls of the chamber and is converted into heat before heat from the plasma can travel to the walls via convection. Obviously, some of the energy is absorbed by the atmosphere, but so much is produced some percentage can travel multiple feet, at least in the low pressure region in the SAFIRE reactor.