COLD FUSION THE EASY WAY IN THREE SIMPLE STEPS

  • The negative resistance regime of a plasma discharge creates a particular type of self organizing macro-EVO or complex space charge configuration that allows for the production of massive quantities of excess energy. Here are the three steps.


    1) Build a reactor with two electrodes, ports for inputting gaseous fuel mixtures, and a circuit and power supply that is tunable.


    2) Once fueled up, start the discharge and enter the negative resistance regime without going into a true arc discharge. (The fireball, complex space charge configuration, or macro-EVO will form during this period.)


    3) Tune the system into resonance by changing the parameters of the circuit and system. This will make the fireball that initially appears on the surface of one of the electrodes detach and become free floating. You can tell you are in resonance by looking at the ion acoustic oscillations on your scope.


    The above is the basic information you need.


    Yes, there are all sorts of practical considerations and nuances. Yes, there are a wide variety of fuel combinations you can test. Yes, for the sake of safety you should take all sorts of precautions. But we have THREE different companies, right now, utilizing variations of the above steps to build WORKING systems: Brilliant Light Power, The SAFIRE Project, and Andrea Rossi. If you do more research, you will realize there have been many groups that have utilized this same phenomena going all the way back to Nikola Tesla. George Egely had discussed these systems in his articles.


    What's important to note is that by utilizing these basic principles, individuals have been able to get plasma based systems to produce excess power in multiple forms over and over again. It's not really that difficult! Obviously, someone with no hands on electronics experience would have a tough time designing the power supply. But for a small team with a couple competent individuals that have a background in fabrication and electronics, it should be FAR simpler than building a powder based system.


    Once you can perform the above three steps, I'd suggest that you look at commonalities between successful systems. From this you'll learn that these systems work best when HYDROGEN or DEUTERIUM gas is in the mixture. Secondly, you'll learn that small percentages of noble gases will help stabilize these plasma balls. There are all sorts of fuel combinations that could be tested. The general theme is that combinations of gases with different atomic weights help produce different sheathes or layers within the "onion" of these macro-EVOs.


    Be aware that once you get such a system going, you will see many anomalies including excess energy (in the form of light, heat, and electricity), surges of a strange type of electricity that goes back into the power supply, emission of longitudinal waves, emission of "strange radiation", and more.

  • 3) Tune the system into resonance by changing the parameters of the circuit and system. This will make the fireball that initially appears on the surface of one of the electrodes detach and become free floating. You can tell you are in resonance by looking at the ion acoustic oscillations on your scope.


    What parameters do you have in mind to tune such a system into resonance?

  • 2) Once fueled up, start the discharge and enter the negative resistance regime without going into a true arc discharge. (The fireball, complex space charge configuration, or macro-EVO will form during this period.)


    By this definition, an electrical spark is a discharge that has entered the negative differential resistance region, but did not make it to a true arc discharge.


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_spark


    Quote

    [...] The exponentially-increasing electrons and ions rapidly cause regions of the air in the gap to become electrically conductive in a process called dielectric breakdown. Once the gap breaks down, current flow is limited by the available charge (for an electrostatic discharge) or by the impedance of the external power supply. If the power supply continues to supply current, the spark will evolve into a continuous discharge called an electric arc.

  • What parameters do you have in mind to tune such a system into resonance?


    I'm not an expert in electronics, and there are others that could give a better answer. However, my understanding is that you would need to be able to control the resistance, inductance, capacitance, and other values of your circuit. Also, to tune it into resonance, you could carefully adjust the gap between electrodes and/or change the pressure within the reactor.

  • By this definition, an electrical spark is a discharge that has entered the negative differential resistance region, but did not make it to a true arc discharge.


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_spark


    I think that is accurate. Ken Shoulders stated that every spark discharge is lead by an EVO. However, they are very transient and may only exist for a very brief period of time. He was able to produce EVOs using all sorts of devices such as piezo electric generators. EVOs are ubiquitous and everywhere. What we are doing by utilizing the negative resistance regime like Andrea Rossi is doing is to make them larger, make them have a greater level of self organization, and make them last for longer than micro-seconds.

  • I'm not an expert in electronics, and there are others that could give a better answer. However, my understanding is that you would need to be able to control the resistance, inductance, capacitance, and other values of your circuit. Also, to tune it into resonance, you could carefully adjust the gap between electrodes and/or change the pressure within the reactor.


    I have a background in electronics, hence my question.


    Maybe we should first define 'resonance' in this application field.

    From my perspective resonance is related to an oscillation with an optimised frequency, such that the output/input power ratio has been maximised.

    Next is to define is the oscillating parameter. What exactly is ocillating?

    1. The volume of the plasma?
    2. The voltage over the electrodes?
    3. The current between the electrodes?
    4. Other?

    My guess is that your thought about 'resonance' is different and probably does not require (an optimised) oscillation perse.

    Do you mean: the optimum working point of the V/I plasma curve (within the negative resistance regime area), such that the output/input power ratio has been maximised?


    Edit: I copied a snapshot from the paper you referred to earlier below to use as guidance, where area f to g indicate the pulsating ball of fire working point.

  • Resonance means that you simultaneously while producing a complex space charge configuration or macro-EVO are producing "ion acoustic oscillations" that will show up on an oscilloscope. Basically, with these systems you input straight DC yet end up with a characteristic waveform which can be found on the screen of Andrea Rossi's oscilloscope during the demonstration at Stockholm or in various documents. By tuning the system into resonance, you would be maximizing the amplitude of these ion acoustic oscillations on your scope and helping the macro-EVO become untethered from the electrode so it can be free floating. If the gaseous pressure is higher in the reactor the oscillations will be slower. If the distance between the electrodes are greater their oscillations will also be slower.


    What's an ion acoustic oscillation? The plasma ball that's formed will start absorbing and emitting ions and electrons which will travel up and down the tube. I would say this would be considered current. Also, the volume of the plasma ball will be varying because it's constant absorbing and emitting matter. This is what makes it a good source of longitudinal waves.


    Please feel free to ask any additional questions you have. I'll do my best to answer.

  • Rob,


    What's also important is to design the circuit so that there is enough resistance so that the current won't go so high that a true arc discharge is established. If you slip into a true arc discharge, the resistance will drop down to almost nothing, the ion acoustic oscillations will end, and the macro-EVO will de-organize. The goal with tuning a system into resonance is to make the most highly organized macro-EVO possible. Then if you have an optimal fuel mix in the reactor, you should be capable of producing excess heat, light, and perhaps even electrical output. However, please be aware that these systems are known to give powerful back spikes that can blow out power supplies.

  • Here is my opinion based on the various papers I've read. I cannot say that I'm 100% correct.


    Once you produce such a "fireball" which will have distinct double layers, that is a sign you are in the negative resistance regime and you will likely be capable of producing some level of LENR reactions (if you are using an appropriate fuel mixture). However, as you tune the system into resonance by changing the properties of the circuit and/or other parameters, the internal structure of the fireball will become better and better organized. Eventually, it will detach from the electrode and become free floating. When it's pulsating, that means you've reached perhaps the highest level of self organization and would be generating the strongest ion acoustic waves. Also, in pulsating mode, I suspect the excess heat from LENR reactions or ZPE tapping will be highest. Of course, the key is to build such a system and run tests to see in which modes the excess heat is greatest. I strongly suspect 3 or 4. Please note, though, that The Safire Project doesn't have a detached fireball. Instead, they are using two cathodes and a single ball shaped anode that the fireball wraps around. This is a sign that making the plasma ball detach and become free floating is not an absolute requirement for excess heat. But as they have shown and spoken about, when they have "dialed up to eleven" they have totally destroyed their anode melting it in seconds. For a system that needs to operate long term, I'm convinced the plasma ball needs to be either barely tethered to a cathode and an anode or totally detached. You don't want the plasma ball sitting on the cathode/anode because it will eventually destroy it. That was why Paulo Correa's system never became practical. He was able to produce high levels of excess energy, but his aluminum electrodes that he pulsed over and over (he didn't just produce a single, stable plasma ball) would erode away.

  • http://www.aetherometry.com/publications/free/LS1-07.pdf


    Look at the damage done to the electrode in the above document. Kenneth Shoulders saw similar near identical damage (except on a smaller scale) from where his EVOs were launched. Paulo Correa and Alexander Chernetsky both went in the wrong direction by building systems that were pulsed repeatedly and would therefore destroy the emission sites. Instead, it's far better to build a system that can be finely tuned to produce a highly organized macro-EVO that's free floating or just barely tethered to one of the electrodes. I think Brilliant Light Power is moving towards this according to what I read in their most recent patent applications.

  • Director

    Maybe both 'stable ball-of-fire' and 'pulsating ball-of-fire" are suitable. Real experiments will probably tell.

    However 'pulsating ball-of-fire' will allow for very easy harvesting of the alternating electro-magnetic field it will generate, resulting in the direct generation of electricity by applying a simple coil around the tube (pointing towards Rossi's latest developments).

  • Although we cannot say with absolute certainty, my thinking is that Rossi is not harvesting an alternating electromagnetic field. If you study the history of various inventors who utilized the negative resistance zone (in the past most parties used pulsed systems) sometimes they would generate massive back spikes that would destroy their power supplies. This happened to Alexander Chernetsky, Nikola Tesla, Paulo Correa, and others. Also, we know that Andrea Rossi's old power supply for the QX required a LOT of active cooling. Andrea Rossi would never tell us why this was the case. I strongly suspect that he was producing not only excess heat but a form of electrical current that was flowing into the power supply and causing over heating.


    I also think that both the stable and pulsating ball of fire would be suitable, but testing and real experiments will be required. The good news are that these systems are NOT extremely complicated, do NOT have to be extremely large, and do NOT require additional reactors to pre-process fuel. My dream would be for someone to build, test, reproduce several times, and post the plans for an entire kit that would fit into a small shoebox. We don't need to produce kilowatts to prove this effect is real, and there's no need to generate giant plasma balls.

  • An oscillating system typically has two states that store energy in different ways. For example a pendulum stores energy as either gravitational potential energy or kinetic energy, an LC oscillator stores energy either as charge in the capacitor or flux in the inductor. Resonance occurs when the frequency of a driving source matches the natural frequency of the oscillating system.


    So in order to know how to build the resonating reactor Director proposes we need to know what two energy storing states the reactor or its contents would/could oscillate between? We would also need to calculate (or perhaps measure) the natural frequency in order to drive it at resonance.


    There is some merit in the idea because at resonance a) the amplitude of oscillation is a maximum and b) the oscillator draws the maximum power from the driver. Eg it becomes easier to inject energy into the system.


    Edit: I should add that the system should naturally "want" to trade energy between the two states. For example a pendulum naturally wants to accelerate when released with GPE. In a parallel connected LC oscillator a voltage on the capacitor causes an increase in current in the inductor.

  • Under all these tuning scenarios being discussed, there has not been one mention of where the excess energy is going to come from. In all negative differential resistance devices, there is an external source of energy which allows the release (see the fluorescent light bulb etc). This is like Rossi's BS paper (mostly written by someone else) which discusses exotic physics hypotheses but gives not one shred of discussion about the source of energy (for example transmutions with matter to energy conversion etc). Without any excess energy source identified, these dicussions are mental masterbation.

  • I know I pushed this before but the cracks in obsidian ramming together within a magma case are shown to make an electrical charge and hold it until a jump to ground, its hard to deny it looking at the videos of volcano's. is it possible to do it in a lab? New thread?

  • there has not been one mention of where the excess energy is going to come from


    The title of this thread is cold fusion.

    The conventional calculation for the excess energy is via the mass deficit MD arising from the fusion of hydrogen with itself or with another nucleus.

    The conversion for 1 amu of MD is ~931 Mev.


    2H+2H--> He MD = 4.002602 -4x1.007825 .........excess energy = 26.7 Mev

    D+D --> He MD = 4.002602 -2x2.014102 .... 23.8 Mev

    H+ Ni62---> Cu63 MD = 62.929598 - (1.007825 +61.928345)....... 6.1 Mev

    H+Fe56 ---> Co57 MD = 56.936291 -(1.007825 +55..934936) ........ 6.0 Mev

    D+ Fe56----> Co58 MD = 57.93575 - (2.014102 +55..934936) ................. 12.5 Mev


    Calculating is easy

    Controlling which reactions happen is not easy

    Managing the excess energy is also not easy


    http://atom-ecology.russgeorge…manage-the-excess-energy/

  • Correctly, magma is formed only in the volcano itself due to terrestrial electricity. There is no magma anywhere else, the planet is dry...

  • Under all these tuning scenarios being discussed, there has not been one mention of where the excess energy is going to come from. In all negative differential resistance devices, there is an external source of energy which allows the release (see the fluorescent light bulb etc). This is like Rossi's BS paper (mostly written by someone else) which discusses exotic physics hypotheses but gives not one shred of discussion about the source of energy (for example transmutions with matter to energy conversion etc). Without any excess energy source identified, these dicussions are mental masterbation.


    The exact source of the excess energy doesn't matter since we know it's there! Brilliant Light Power, The SAFIRE Project, and Andrea Rossi are all using this phenomenon in their devices. Moreover, previous inventors have utilized the negative resistance regime such as Alexander Chernetsky and Paulo Correa. Then if you understand what the negative resistance regime is and how every electrical discharge has to go through it for at least a very short period of time, you realize that a ton of other individuals who also utilizing the phenomena. What matters is that this regime has WORKED again and again. Currently, there are three major plays using this phenomena to produce massive excess power and they ALL have different ideas on what's happening. But the excess energy is still there regardless of the fact that we don't all agree yet on the theory!


    Most of mankind's technological advancement came from inventions that they did not fully understand! But it didn't matter because they worked. Producing practical devices is what really matters. Once we have them, the scientific community can spend the next hundred years working out the theory.