Modern tiny water fuelled nuclear energy reactor

  • So the magnetic fields result from coordinated electron spin alignment (which is quite similar to Wyttenbach and Holmlid's models of nuclear fusion. The latter uses YAG (IR) or 495nm lasers to stimulate proton breakdown into Kaons etc from ultra dense D or H). Does your work have any similar underlying principles? :)

    No i don't think so, this is just basic repulsion from carbon atoms electron magnetic fields.

  • I sense some ECW mood in these words. Rossi was called genius many times there for doing unexplainable.

    Comparing Mizuno or these people with Rossi is silly. Rossi is hiding the tech and is called a genius these guys seam to want to get a public confirmation. They seam to me to be the opposite of Rossi and that I applaud.

  • Does "7 nm" refer to the inside dimension? If so, here's one source that may be suitable:

    https://tinyurl.com/yyew88nz


    The I.D. specified is 5-10 nm, bracketing the desired size. The price is good, $86 for 25g, or about 75 cc. Would that be enough for a test with typical radiation detectors?

    the experiment used 7nm OD and 5nm ID MWCNT's

    the higher purity the better..


    in this link you sent they state 95% purity, I'm really not sure if this is enough to produce the effects i talked about, i think they are higher purities there on the market just search...


    start by few milligrams and measure if there is any radiation, give it time (few hours) and inspect if there is hydrogen or He gas generation, if nothing is detected add more and so on.. on James experiment there was a stream of bubbles.

  • The patent application goldinium is refering to does not mention water other that a rinsing role to prepare the nano tubes.
    The role of water described in this thread is therefore quite confusion. goldinium : can you please eleborate?

    I mean in case of stimulation you get radiation, in case of experiment conducted in ambient environment without stimulation you don't get radiation or neutrons.

  • Correct, i edited this part of the post, harmful emissions occurs if there was a stimulation, other than that you get H, HE...with no ionizing photons. just like stated on the patent.

  • The patent talks about nonionising radiation and nonionising HE4.


    Perhaps the authors are trying to emphasise the fact that that under certain conditions they don't produce ionising radiation.. alpah beta gamma....


    but nonionising He4....is a bit strange... does this mean it cannot produce He ions:)

  • The patent talks about nonionising radiation and nonionising HE4.


    Perhaps the authors are trying to emphasise the fact that that under certain conditions they don't produce ionising radiation.. alpah beta gamma....


    but nonionising He4....is a bit strange... does this mean it cannot produce He ions:)

    It's the other way around, the experiment don't produce ionizing emissions without stimulation, i mentioned radiation only for safety reasons as some researcher could conduct it in a different manner and harm themselves.

  • It's the other way around, the experiment don't produce ionizing emissions without stimulation, i mentioned radiation only for safety reasons as some researcher could conduct it in a different manner and harm themselves.

    Why don't stick with the experiment without stimulation? And have safe energy source?

    What are the odds that stimulation itself is harmful?

  • Why don't stick with the experiment without stimulation? And have safe energy source?

    What are the odds that stimulation itself is harmful?

    and that's the goal, however, exposing water to sunlight or something similar will produce harmful radiation, and sometimes even with no apparent stimulation an energy burst occur, this should be studied well to prevent any surprises that may cost a lot.

  • Further details from Deuterium Energetics (I'm not affiliated with them in any way)


    The Vermont Experiments

    In 2005 D2O was added to a very small amount (~10 milligrams) of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in two separate glass beakers. Positioned under each beaker was a hermetically sealed piece of X-ray film. After allowing exposure overnight, both films were developed and showed exposure to some type of radiation.

    Our scientists then added more heavy water to the same beakers from the first experiment. In some of the experiments light from various sources was impinged on the D2O/CNT mixture and gamma/X-ray and neutron radiation detectors monitored any output from the apparatus.


    The apparatus that was used had water shielding and thick polypropylene neutron moderators for safety purposes. The detectors never detected X-rays or gamma rays. High energy X-rays (about 20 MeV) could not penetrate the metal portion of the detector, much less the thick polypropylene moderator. Radiation of some type was, however, detected in these same beakers on the X-ray film in the first experiment. Irradiation of the beaker as it rotated produced measurable radiation. Several of the samples that were emitting energy were retained.

    From this preliminary work it was determined that it was possible to generate radiation by combining deuterium in the form of “heavy water” and CNTs.


    Because we had limited experience with nuclear systems and systems generating radiation it was decided that further research should be conducted at a facility having such experience.

    Research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories

    In 2006 we contracted with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories to conduct further experiments. Again, a mixture of D2O and CNTs was subjected to various energy inputs to induce a fusion reaction. State of the art neutron detectors were used to determine if such a reaction took place.


    The experiments produced mixed results. When a high frequency signal was imposed on the system the detectors recorded what appeared to be the production of neutrons from a nuclear reaction, but there was no constant output. Nor could the detectors discriminate between a cosmic ray or and impinging neutron.

    In the final report for this research LLNL stated: “Of these [test results], the CNT sample event of October 25, 2006 at 16:14 provides evidence for a DD fusion source.” LLNL final Report P. 27.


    While neutrons were detected and indicated some type of nuclear reaction may be taking place intermittently, this research made it clear that using neutrons as the metric to determine if a fusion reaction was taking place was not feasible. The reaction being induced in the experiment did not produce neutrons in large numbers or continuously.

    Research in Bend Oregon

    An independent laboratory having expertise in vacuums systems and hydrogen chemistry was contracted for this next research. The experimental procedure was modified in several significant ways. First, instead of liquid heavy water (D2O), gaseous deuterium (D2) was used. It was felt that the use of mobile gas molecules would increase the probability of the deuterium either entering a CNT or interacting with its surface. Second, instead of trying to detect neutrons the system was designed to detect helium gas, a byproduct that demonstrates some type of nuclear reaction. Third, no external energy was input to the combination of CNTs and deuterium.


    Prior to the experiments the entire vacuum system was “baked” to remove any gases adsorbed onto the interior surfaces of the apparatus. Particular care was made to remove any trace of helium that might be present from: 1) leak testing the vacuum system, 2) that might be present from any leaks or adsorption of the surrounding air (air contains 5.2ppm of helium), or 3) present in any of the materials introduced to the system (the CNTs and D2 gas). Any possible contamination of the system was found to be less than 10 ppm.


    A series of four vacuum pumps, including an ion pump, were used in the system. They first evacuated the entire system of all gases, reactive and inert. Next the combination of deuterium gas and CNTs was introduced to the system and the pumps were again used to remove any gases that were generated in the system. The composition of the gases that were produced was determined using conventional detectors on the output of the pumps.

    The combination of deuterium and CNTs produced 203ppm of helium inside the previously helium-free vacuum system, 300ppm in another.

    The presence of helium in amounts hundreds of times more that was in the system before the reaction and 40 times the helium residually present in air, proves that some type of nuclear reaction occurred in the system when D2 gas and CNTs were combined.


    The experimental setup and the data was shown to a nationally recognized university professor whose expertise is experimental measurements and techniques. He found the equipment, the procedures, the detection system, and the data analysis to be fundamentally sound.

    Current Testing of the 2005 Emitting Samples

    In 2016 one of the samples of the 2005 Vermont experiment was still emitting energy with no input of external energy. A conventional radiation detector was used to measure energy being emitted from the 2005 sample.

    The small size of the sample (micrograms) and the length of continuous energy production precludes it from being some type of chemical reaction. This is clear proof that some type of energy-producing, molecular level nuclear reaction is taking place in the 2005 sample.

    Independent Confirmation of our Technology

    The production of helium (4He) resulting from the combination of CNTs and deuterium has been observed by other researchers. See, “Visible-Light-Induced Water Splitting in Channels of Carbon Nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. B, 2006, 110, 1571-75. (may be downloaded at the end of the website)

    In that work water (that inherently contains small amounts of deuterium as “heavy water” (D2O)) was combined with carbon nanotubes and irradiated with visible light. Transmutation gases (e.g. helium) and energy were produced. No such effect was observed when the carbon was in the form of planar micrographite.

    Fig. 2(b) of the article is a plot from a mass spectrograph showing the characteristic atomic masses of the gases produced when CNTs were irradiated in the presence of deuterium. Note the peak at AMU 4 for helium (4He).

    The formation of chemical compounds like CH4 and CO2 from the elements initially present in the system (C, O, and H) is fundamentally different than creation of an atomic element (4He) not initially present. The creation of a new atomic element is transmutation and is indicative of some type of nuclear reaction.


    FAQs


    How does your technology produce energy?


    We believe that the electronic environment within carbon nanotubes negates the need for extreme pressures and temperatures ordinarily required to get deuterium atoms to fuse and facilitates the reaction:

    2D + 2D → 4He + 23.8 MeV


    Is your technology "cold fusion?"


    No, our technology and "cold fusion" are two different species of what are known as LENR (low energy nuclear reactions). Ours is confinement of deuterium in carbon nanotubes with no external energy input and "cold fusion" is an electrochemical process involving the use of electrical energy to induce solid state reactions with rare metals.


    Do nuclear physicists recognize LENR?


    No, despite credible evidence from international research, they assert that low temperature fusion events cannot occur.


    What credible evidence?


    By 2009 so many researchers had produced results that could only be the result of fusion reactions the U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency issued a report that summarized the research to date and provided an assessment of the feasibility and potential of the technology. The DIA report is entitled “Worldwide Research on Low-energy Nuclear Reactions Increasing and Gaining Acceptance” DIA-08-0911-003, dated November 13, 2009. It states that “scientist worldwide have reported anomalous excess heat production, as well as evidence of nuclear particles, and transmutation,” P. 2. It goes on to state: “This body of research has produced evidence that nuclear reactions may be occurring under conditions not previously believed to be possible,” P.3. (may be downloaded at the end of this website)


    What is the significance of "transmutation?"



    Nuclear transmutation occurs when one chemical element is changed into another one, deuterium to helium being one example. This occurs naturally during radioactive decay, but can occur from any number of nuclear processes that add or subtract protons from the atomic nucleus. This can occur during nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, or by bombarding materials with extremely high energy nuclear particles. No known chemical reaction can induce a transmutation reaction.


    Can you cite some of the research?


    A compilation is in the DIA report and includes:

    6. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Vol. 261, 263,287, pp 187, 301,293.

    7. DeChiaro, Louis, "Recent Progress in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions, "briefing prepared by NAVSEA, Dahlgren,

    for DDR&E, 28 August, 2009.

    8. Iwamura, Yashiro, et al ., "Transmutation Reactions Induced by D2 Gas Permeation Through Pd Complexes

    (Pd/CaO/Pd), "14th International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF), Washington, DC, 10-15 August 2008.

    9. Hioki, Tatsumi, et al., "Influence of Deuterium Gas Penneation on Surface Elemental Change of Ion-Implanted Pd," 14th International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF), Washington, DC, 10-15 August 2008.

    10. Celani, Francesco, et al., "Deuteron Electromigration in Thin Pd Wires Coated with Nano-Particles: Evidence for

    Ultra-Fast Deuterium Loading and Anomalous, Large Thermal Effects," 14th International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF), Washington , DC, 10-15 August 2008.

    11. "Exciting New Science; Potential Clean Energy," Abstracts, 14th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science and International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF), Washington, DC, I0-15 August 2008.

    12 Mosier-Boss, et al. "Triple Tracks in CR-39 as the Result of Pd/D Co-deposition: Evidence of Energetic Neutrons," Naturwissenschaften, 96, 2009, 135-142.

    13 Mosier-Boss, et al., Navy SPAWAR briefing, American Chemical Society annual meeting, March 2009.

    14 "Exciting New Science; Potential Clean Energy," Abstracts, 14th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science and International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF), Washington, DC, I0-15 August 2008.

    16. Iwamura, Yashiro, et al., "Transmutation Reactions Induced by D2 Gas Permeation Through Pd Complexes (Pd/CaO/Pd) 14th International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF), Washington, DC, 10-15 August 2008.

    17. Yamaguchi, Tatsuya, et al., "Investigation of Nuclear Transmutation Using Multilayered CaO/X/Pd Samples Under Deuterium Permeation," 14th International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF), Washington, DC, 10-15

    August 2008.

    18. Iwamura, Yashiro, et al., "Elemental Analysis of Pd Complexes: Effects of D2 Gas Permeation," Japan .Journal of Applied Physics, Vol 41, 2002, pp. 4642-4650.

    19. Arata, Y., "Anomalous Effects in Charging of Pd Powders with High Density Hydrogen Isotopes," Physics Letters A, 373, 2009, pp 3109-3112.

    20. Violante, V. et al., "On the Correlation of PdD Alloy Material Properties with the Occurrence of Excess Power," briefing presented at 14th International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF), Washington, DC, 10-15 August 2008.

    21. Prelas, M.A., et al., "A review of Transmutation and Clustering in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions," briefing presented at Vice Chancellor for Research Seminar on LENR, University of Missouri , May 2009.

    22. Briefings presented at Navy SPAWAR San Diego, LENR meeting, 4-5 August, 2009.

    23. Mosier-Boss, et al. "Triple Tracks in CR-39 as the Result of Pd/D Co-deposition: Evidence of Energetic Neutrons," Naturwissenschaften, 96, 2009, 135-142.

    24. Mizuno, Tadahiko, "Neutron Emission Induced by Nuclear Reaction in Condensed Matter," briefing presented at Vice Chancellor for Research Seminar on LENR, University of Missouri, May 2009.

    25. Zhang, et al., "On the Explosion in a Deuterium/Palladium Electrolytic System," Third International conference on Cold Fusion, 1992. Nagoya, Japan.

    26. Biberian. Jean-Paul, "Unexplained Explosion During an Electrolysis Experiment in an Open Cell Mass flow Calorimeter," Journal of Condensed Matter, Nuclear Science, 2 (2009) pp. 1-6.

    27. Zhang, et al., "On the Explosion in a Deuterium/Palladium electrolytic System." Third International conference on Cold Fusion, 1992. Nagoya, Japan.

    28. Lesin , et al.. "Ultrasonically-Excited Electrolysis Experiments at Energetic Technologies," Energetics Technologies, Omer, Israel. briefing presented at 14th International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF), Washington, DC. 10-15 August 2008

    29. Jayaraman, K.S., "Cold Fusion is Hot Again," Nature India.2008. Published online 17 Jan 2008.

    http://www.lenr­canr.org/acrobat/JayaramanKcoldfusion.pdf

    30. Mosier-Boss, et al., multiple briefings presented at Navy SPAWAR Pacific, August 4-5, 2009.

    31. McKubre. Michael, "Studies of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect at SRI International," briefing presented at Vice Chancellor for Research Seminar on LENR, University of Missouri , May 2009.

    32. Spzak, Stan, et al., "Evidence of Nuclear Reactions in the Pd Lattice," Naturwissenschaften., 92. 2005, 394-397.

    33. Szpak, Stan, et al., "Thermal Behavior of Polarized Pd/D Electrodes Prepared by Co-Deposition," 410, 2004, 101-107.

    34. Mosier-Boss, et al., "Triple Tracks in CR-39 as the Result ofPd/D Co-deposition: Evidence of Energetic Neutrons." >em class="x-el x-el-span c1-1z c1-20 c1-6t c1-2f c1-2c c1-32 c1-6u c1-b x-d-ux">Naturwissenschaften., 96. 2009, 135-142.

    35 .Spzak, Stan, et al., "Evidence of Nuclear Reactions in the Pd Lattice," Naturwissenschaften., 92. 2005, 394-397.

    37. Mosier-Boss, et al., Navy SPAWAR briefing, American Chemical Society annual meeting, March 2009.

    38. McKubre, Michael, "Stud ies of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect at SRI International," briefing presented at Vice Chancellor for Research Seminar: Excess Heat and Particle Tracks from Deuterium-Loaded Palladium, University of Missouri, 29 May 2009.


    The Development of NanoConfinement Reactions


    Deuterium Energetics is a spinoff of a company that developed water filtration technology using the unique properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). CNTs have a unique structure that can be conceptualized by wrapping a one-atom-thick layer of graphite into a seamless cylinder. The graphic on the home page is a schematic depiction of a single-walled CNT. The spheres represent the carbon atoms and the rods the bonds between the carbon atoms.

    CNTs can have a diameter of about 1 nanometer (1 ten millionth of a centimeter) with a length up to 132 million times its diameter. CNTs have diameter dimensions at the atomic level so the interaction of CNTs with other materials is not predictable. In addition, at the atomic level, concepts like pressure and temperature are not entirely understood.

    Because of the electronic environment created by CNTs, our scientists believed that if deuterium * could be sufficiently confined inside a CNT ** such that some type of energy producing reaction could take place without the temperature and pressure needed for conventional nuclear fusion.

    Our research has confirmed that confinement of deuterium in CNTs results in some type of reaction that produces energy.

    We believe the reaction is 2D + 2D → 4He + 23.8 MeV.


    * Deuterium is a non-radioactive isotope of hydrogen. For every 6500 atoms of hydrogen in ordinary water (H2O) there is also one atom of deuterium (~154 PPM) in the form of D2O. Deuterium can also exist as a gas, D2.


    ** Recent research at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (may be downloaded at the end of the website) confirmed that water (and hence D2O) can be confined within CNTs. (may be downloaded at the end of the website) (http://phys.org/news/201604statemolecule)



    copied from: https://deuteriumenergetics.com/our-research & https://deuteriumenergetics.com/our-technology

  • Researchers who are going to replicate the experiment, you can find useful details here

    https://patentimages.storage.g…e1a2a7/WO2012088472A1.pdf

    (Figures etc..)


    That is very different from the experiment described at the start of this thread. The device and procedure in that patent are far from trivial and would be hard to duplicate without serious investment. For example, the conflat cell is to be built of Inconel and all parts and valves must be SC-11 clean and UV rated. These are not off the shelf" parts. A three-stage vacuum system with ion pump is also needed, with a base vacuum of 1E-8 Torr!


    Finally, a typical quadrupole RGA would not be able to discriminate between He and D2 (both ~mass=4), and that was not considered. Measurement of He at ppm levels is a very skilled specialty, due to the many technical challenges and the possibility of leakage from ambient.

  • If anyone has questions please ask me. and for safety's sake, use milligram masses of cnt's. 1 to 10 is safe.


    From the username I'm assuming you are James F. Loan, one of the inventors of the patent application presented in this thread (WO2012088472A1).


    What is the simplest and most economical configuration that can get a reaction working? Has natural water/hydrogen been demonstrated to work and to what extent compared to deuterium?


    If brief EM bursts falling in the RF range associated with ionizing radiation are generated (as sometimes reported in the LENR field), monitoring would not be too difficult or expensive. The first portion of what is mentioned in the excerpt below might also be just radiation damage, though.


    tests done with 10mg resulted in failure of computers and electronic devices on a 15 meter radius, and death of all mice and flies on the lab, the researcher had mild radiation poisoning symptoms for several days.

  • From the username I'm assuming you are James F. Loan, one of the inventors of the patent application presented in this thread (WO2012088472A1).

    I see no value in such patents as the key process has been documented in 2005. Everybody else can use nanotubes and produce some results without violating any later patents.


    But the shared experience about a neutron shower is very important and one reason I'm very cautious in doing LENR. LENR without monitoring tools is a self destruction attempt, like the first Manhattan trials for the critical mass. Always start with small (tiny) amounts! The 1 nano meter diameter of nano tubes is just optimal for LENR an each tube can produce one reaction at the same moment. Now you can count how bad this may end even with a single one micrometer particle!

  • Yes as said Wyttenbach this is especially the nano size which is important rather than the carbon as matter.

    Now, if water is trapped inside nanohole to trigger reaction, it should exist a trick to do that because Van der walls forces ??

    goldinium said we don't need no external sollicitation for triggering.

    This is not really true because ambiant temperature vibrates already at Thz frequency both small carbon nano diameter will tend to concentrate light flux..

  • That is very different from the experiment described at the start of this thread. The device and procedure in that patent are far from trivial and would be hard to duplicate without serious investment. For example, the conflat cell is to be built of Inconel and all parts and valves must be SC-11 clean and UV rated. These are not off the shelf" parts. A three-stage vacuum system with ion pump is also needed, with a base vacuum of 1E-8 Torr!


    Finally, a typical quadrupole RGA would not be able to discriminate between He and D2 (both ~mass=4), and that was not considered. Measurement of He at ppm levels is a very skilled specialty, due to the many technical challenges and the possibility of leakage from ambient.

    I agree, this can be for institutions level, however i don't see any reason to not try a basic experiment with conventional detectors....the procedures on the patent is just to convince highly sceptical researchers.